Fluoride Action Network

Health Effects Database

FAN's comprehensive catalog of fluoride research, including detailed summaries and exhaustive references for over 80 aspects of fluoride toxicity. A gold mine of information for anyone interested in the science.

I. Introduction:

The Health Database sets forth the scientific basis for FAN’s concerns regarding the safety and effectiveness of ingested fluorides. The database is the product of over 10 years of research by FAN’s research team, led by attorney-at-law Michael Connett. In 2012, Connett conducted an exhaustive review of recent scientific findings, including research that, up to now, has only been available in Chinese and Russian. The current database reflects the findings of this new review.

II. FAN’s Health Summaries:

Arthritis Gastrointestinal Effects
Bone Fracture Fluoride Hypersensitivity
Brain Effects Kidney Disease
Cancer Male Fertility
Cardiovascular Disease Pineal Gland
Dental Fluorosis Skeletal Fluorosis
Diabetes Tooth Decay
Endocrine Disruption Thyroid Disease


IV. analysis & documentation:

Acute Toxicity:

Minimum Lethal Dose (5 mg/kg)
Minimum Dose that Produces Acute Toxicity (0.1-0.3 mg/kg)
Causes of
Acute Toxicity
Fluoride toothpastes
Fluoride gels
Water fluoridation accidents


Fluoride & Arthritis
Fluoride & Osteoarthritis
Fluoride & Rheumatoid Arthritis
Fluoride & Repetitive Stress
Fluoride’s differential effect on bone density (trabecular vs. cortical bone)
Epidemiology: Fluoride in water & bone density
The “Iowa Fluoride Study”
Relationship between fluoride, bone density, and bone strength
Bone Mineralization
Fluoride increases osteoid content of bone
Fluoride & osteomalacia
Fluoride & rickets
Fluoride exposure increases calcium requirement
Bone Fluorosis
The Misdiagnosis Problem
Skeletal fluorosis & individual variability 
Factors which increase risk for skeletal fluorosis
Exposure pathways linked to skeletal fluorosis
Estimated threshold doses for skeletal fluorosis 
Skeletal fluorosis in India & China
Skeletal fluorosis in the U.S.
“Pre-skeletal” fluorosis
X-ray diagnosis of skeletal fluorosis
Variability in radiographic variability of skeletal fluorosis
Fluorosis & Spondylosis/Spondylitis
Fluorosis & DISH (Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis)
Fluorosis & Spinal Stenosis
Fluorosis & Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
Fluorosis & Osteopetrosis
Bone Fracture
Mechanisms by which fluoride can reduce bone strength
Clinical Trials / Fracture Rates
Animal Studies / Bone Strength
In vitro studies / Bone Strength
Epidemiology: Fluoride in Water & Bone Fracture
Fluoride reduces bone strength prior to onset of skeletal fluorosis
Skeletal fluorosis & Bone fracture
Bone Cells
Fluoride & osteoblasts
Fluoride & osteocytes
Fluoride & osteoclasts


Human Studies
Fluoride & IQ: 33 Studies
Fluoride’s neurobehavioral effects
Fluoride’s effect on fetal brain
Animal Studies
Fluoride’s effect on learning/memory
Fluoride’s effect on brain cells/tissue


In vitro studies
In vivo studies
Indiana’s Oral Health Research Institute’s Studies
NTP’s Bioassay (1990)
Overview of NTP Bioassay
Liver cancer (hepatocholangiocarcinoma) findings
Human Epidemiological Studies
Fluoride & Osteosarcoma: A Timeline
A critique of Gelberg’s study on fluoride/osteosarcoma in New York
Fluoride & Bladder/Lung Cancer
Biological plausibility of fluoride/osteosarcoma link

Cardiovascular system

Fluoride & Cardiovascular Disease: An Overview
Fluoride, Blood Pressure & Hypertension
Fluoride & Arterial Calcification
Fluoride & Arteriosclerosis
Fluoride & Electrocardiogram Abnormalities
Fluoride & Myocardial Damage

Endocrine Function

Glucose Metabolism
Fluoride & Impaired Glucose Metabolism
Fluoride & Insulin
Fluoride Sensitivity Among Diabetics
National Research Council’s Summary (2006)
Pineal Gland
Luke (2001): Fluoride accumulation in human pineal gland
Luke (1997): Fluoride’s effect on pineal function in gerbils
Thyroid Gland
Fluoride Aggravates Iodine Deficiency
Fluoride Aggravates Iodine Excess
Fluoride & Goitre
Fluoride & Thyroid Hormones
NRC’s (2006) Review of Fluoride/Thyroid
Parathyroid Gland
Fluorosis & Secondary Hyperparathyroidism


Acute Toxicity
Gastric symptoms: Early sign of acute fluoride toxicity
Clinical Trials
Fluoride-induced damage to gastric mucosa
Gastric symptoms: common side effect
Fluorosis patients
Gastric symptoms: common side effect


Fluoride’s Effect on Kidney Patients
Kidney patients at increased risk of fluoride poisoning
Health authorities are ignoring the risk
Similarities between skeletal fluorosis & renal osteodystrophy
Fluoridation, dialysis, & osteomalacia
Fluoride’s Effect on Kidney
Kidneys are exposed to high concentrations of fluoride
Fluoride as a cause of kidney disease in humans
Fluoride as a cause of kidney disease in animals
Fluoride & Kidney Stones

Reproductive System

Male Fertility
Human studies
Animal studies
In vitro studies
The Sprando/Collins Anomaly


Caries (Syntheses)
Fluoride’s Topical vs. Systemic effect
Tooth decay trends in F vs. NF countries
Tooth decay rates in F vs. NF communities
Fluoridation & “baby bottle tooth decay”
Water fluoridation, tooth decay, & poverty
Studies on tooth decay rates after fluoridation was stopped
Caries (Specific Studies)
The “Iowa Fluoride Study” (1990s-Present Day)
Armfield & Spencer (2004)
National Institute of Dental Research (1986-87)
Dental Fluorosis
Dental fluorosis rates in the U.S.: 1950-2004
Racial disparities in dental fluorosis rates
Dental fluorosis: The “Cosmetic Factor”
Severe Fluorosis: Perception & Psychological Impact
“Mild” Fluorosis: Perception & Psychological Impact
Moderate/Severe Fluorosis: Impact on Tooth Quality
Dental Fluorosis’s impact on enamel (“Hypo-mineralization”)
Dental fluorosis impacts dentin in addition to enamel
Mechanisms by which fluoride causes dental fluorosis
Diagnostic criteria for dental fluorosis: Dean Index
Diagnostic criteria for dental fluorosis: TF Index
Diagnostic criteria for dental fluorosis: TSIF Index
Community Fluorosis Index (CFI)

Vulnerable Populations

Age groups:
Racial/Ethnic groups
African Americans
Populations with the Following Conditions:
Kidney Disease
Nutrient Deficiencies
Individuals with Fluoride Sensitivity  
Topical Fluorides
Systemic Fluorides


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