Fluoride Action Network

Recently Added Studies

The following are studies that FAN added to the website as part of the website overhaul in August 2012. Most of the studies are discussed and/or excerpted in FAN’s Health Database.


Charone S, et al. 2012. Lack of a significant relationship between toenail fluoride concentrations and caries prevalence. Fluoride 45:133-37.

Chiba FY, et al. 2012. NaF treatment increases TNF-a and resistin concentrations and reduces insulin signal in rats. J Fluorine Chemistry 136: 3-7.

Choi AL, et al. 2012. Developmental Fluoride Neurotoxicity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives 2012 Jul 20. [Epub ahead of print] [See study]

Gencer B, et al. 2012. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and the risk of heart failure events: An individual participant data analysis from six prospective cohorts. Circulation 2012 Jul 19. [Epub ahead of print]

Gupta SK, et al. 2012. Changes in serum seromucoid following compensatory hyperparathyroidism: A sequel to chronic fluoride ingestion. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 23(2):176-180.

Gutowska I, et al. 2012. Fluoride in low concentration modifies expression and activity of 15 lipoxygenase in human PBMC differentiated monocyte/macrophage. Toxicology 295:23-30.

Hosur MB, et al. 2012. Study of thyroid hormones free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in subjects with dental fluorosis. European Journal of Dentistry 6:184-90.

Katzmarzyk PT, Staiano AE. 2012. New race and ethnicity standards: elucidating health disparities in diabetes. BMC Medicine 10(1):42.

Kumar N, et al. 2012. To Study the Effect of Vitamin D and E on Sodium-Fluoride-induced Toxicity in Reproductive Functions of Male Rabbits. Toxicology International 19(2):182-87.

Levy M, Leclerc BS. 2012. Fluoride in drinking water and osteosarcoma incidence rates in the continental United States among children and adolescents. Cancer Epidemiology 36(2):e83-8.

Li Y, et al. 2012. Association of vascular fluoride uptake with vascular calcification and coronary artery disease. Nuclear Med Comm 33:14-20.

Lou DD, et al. 2012. [Alteration of mitochondrial distribution and gene expression of fission 1 protein in cortical neurons of rats with chronic fluorosis]. [Article in Chinese]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 41(4):243-7.

Luo R, et al. (2012). Total knee arthroplasty for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis caused by endemic skeletal fluorosis. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-XDKF201209015.htm

Ma Y, et al. 2012. Inflammatory responses induced by fluoride and arsenic at toxic concentration in rabbit aorta. Arch Toxicol 86:849-56.

McGrady MG, et al. 2012. Adolescents’ perceptions of the aesthetic impact of dental fluorosis vs. other dental conditions in areas with and without water fluoridation. BMC Oral Health 12:4.

Muntner P, et al. 2012. Racial differences in the incidence of chronic kidney disease. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 7(1):101-7.

Rango T, et al. 2012. Groundwater quality and its health impact: An assessment of dental fluorosis in rural inhabitants of the Main Ethiopian Rift. Environment International 43:37-47.

Saxena S, et al. 2012. Effect of fluoride exposure on the intelligence of school children in Madhya Pradesh, India. Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice 3(2):144-49.

Su WM, et al. (2012). Total hip arthroplasty for the treatment of severe hip osteoarthritis due to fluorosis. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research 16(9):1543-1546.  [See study]

Vanbenberg LN, et al. (2012). Hormones and endocrine-disrupting chemicals: Lowdose effects and nonmonotonic dose responses. Endocrine Reviews, 33(3):378-455. [See study]

Varol E, Varol S. 2012. Effect of fluoride toxicity on cardiovascular systems: role of oxidative stress. Arch Toxicol (Letter to the Editor), DOI 10.1007/s00204-012-0862-y

Vasant RA, Narasimhacharya AVRL. 2012. Ameliorative effect of tamarind leaf on fluoride-induced metabolic alterations. Environ Health Prev Med. DOI 10.1007/s12199-012-0277-7


Amini H, et al. 2011. Drinking water fluoride and blood pressure: an environmental study. Biol Trace Elem Res 144:157-63.

Basha MP, Sujitha NS. 2011. Chronic fluoride toxicity and myocardial damage: antioxidant offered protection in second generation rats. Toxicol Int 18(2):99-104.

Basha PM, et al. 2011. Fluoride toxicity and status of serum thyroid hormones, brain histopathology, and learning memory in rats: a multigenerational assessment. Biol Trace Elem Res. 144(1-3):1083-94.

Chandrajith R, et al. 2011. Chronic kidney diseases of uncertain etiology (CKDue) in Sri Lanka: geographic distribution and environmental implications. Environ Geochem Health 33(3):267-78.

Chandrajith R, et al. 2011. Dose-dependent Na and Ca in fluoride-rich drinking water–another major cause of chronic renal failure in tropical arid regions. Sci Total Environ. 409(4):671-5.

Chen L, Mulligan ME. 2011. Medication-induced periostitis in lung transplant patients: periostitis deformans revisited. Skeletal Radiol. 40(2):143-8.

Chankanka O, et al. (2011). Longitudinal associations between children’s dental caries and risk factors. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 71(4):289-300.

Chankanka O, et al. (2011). Mixed dentition cavitated caries incidence and dietary intake frequencies. Pediatric Dentistry 33(3):233-40.

Dede O, et al. 2011. Chronic fluoride exposure has a role in etiology of coronary artery ectasia: sialic acid/glycosaminoglycan ratio. Biol Trace Elem Res 143:695-701.

Everett ET. 2011. Fluoride’s Effects on the Formation of Teeth and Bones, and the Influence of Genetics. Journal of Dental Research 90:552-60.

Ge Y, et al. 2011. Proteomic analysis of brain proteins of rats exposed to high fluoride and low iodine. Arch. Toxicol. 85:27-33.

Hendryx M, et al. 2011. Water fluoridation and dental health indicators in rural and urban areas of the United States. West Virginia Rural Health Research Center. Available at: http://wvrhrc.hsc.wvu.edu/docs/2011_fluoridation_final_report.pdf

Izuora K, et al. 2011. Skeletal fluorosis from brewed tea. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 96(8):2318-24.

Karademir S, et al. 2011. Effects of fluorosis on QT dispersion, heart rate variability and echocardiographic parameters in children. Anadolu Kardiyol Derg 11:150-5.

Koroglu BK, et al. 2011. Serum parathyroid hormone levels in chronic endemic fluorosis. Biol Trace Elem Res. 143(1):79-86.

Kumar P, et al. 2011. Fluorotic cervical compressive myelopathy, 20 years after laminectomy: A rare event. Surg Neurol Int. 2:11.

Kumar S, et al. 2011. Skeletal fluorosis mimicking seronegative spondyloarthropathy: a deceptive presentation. Tropical Doctor 41:247-48.

Leite GA, et al. 2011. Exposure to lead exacerbates dental fluorosis. Archives of Oral Biology 56(7):695-702.

Liu YJ, et al. 2011. Increased level of apoptosis in rat brains and SH-SY5Y cells exposed to excessive fluoride–a mechanism connected with activating JNK phosphorylation. Toxicol Lett. 204(2-3):183-9.

Lupo M, Buzalaf MAR. 2011. Effect of fluoridated water on plasma insulin levels and glucose homeostasis in rats with renal deficiency. Biol Trace Elem Res 140: 198-207.

Pereira M, et al. 2011. Memory impairment induced by sodium fluoride is associated with changes in brain monoamine levels. Neurotox Res. 19(1):55-62.

Petrone P, et al. 2011. Enduring Fluoride Health Hazard for the Vesuvius Area Population: The Case of AD 79 Herculaneum. PLoS ONE 6(6): e21085.

Shivaprakash PK, et al. 2011. Relation between dental fluorosis and intelligence quotient in school children of Bagalkot district. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 29(2):117-20.

Sierant ML, Bartlett JD. 2011. A Potential Mechanism for the Development of Dental Fluorosis. In: Interface Oral Health Science (K Sasaki, et al., eds).

Steinmeyer R. (2011). [Influence of natural fluoride concentration in drinking water on dental health of first class pupils in an area with enhanced fluoride content at the beginning of the 21st century]. Gesundheitswesen. 73(8-9):483-90.

Sun Z, et al. 2011. Fluoride-induced apoptosis and gene expression profiling in mice sperm in vivo. Arch Toxicol. 85(11):1441-52.

Wermers RA, et al. 2011. Fluoride excess and periostitis in transplant patients receiving long-term voriconazole therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 52(5):604-11.

Yazdi SM, et al. 2011. Effects of fluoride on psychomotor performance and memory of aluminum potroom workers. Fluoride 44:158-62.

Zhu W, et al. 2011. Effects of fluoride on synaptic membrane fluidity and PSD-95 expression level in rat hippocampus. Biol Trace Elem Res. 139(2):197-203.


Applbaum YK. 2010. Imaging of the skeleton and the joints in CKD. p. 208. In: The Spectrum of Mineral and Bone Disorders in Chronic Kidney Disease. (Olgaard K, Salusky IB, Silver J, eds.) Oxford University Press.

Barbier O, et al. 2010. Molecular mechanisms of fluoride toxicity. Chemico-Biological Interactions 188:319-33.

Bronstein AC, et al. 2010. 2009 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS): 27th Annual Report. Clinical Toxicology 48:979-1178.

Chachra D, et al. 2010. The long-term effects of water fluoridation on the human skeleton. Journal of Dental Research 89:1219-1223.

Chiba FY, et al. 2010. Insulin signal decrease in muscle but not in the liver of castrated male rats from chronic exposure to fluoride. Fluoride 43(1): 25-30.

Gui CZ, et al. 2010. Changes of learning and memory ability and brain nicotinic receptors of rat offspring with coal burning fluorosis. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 32(5):536-41.

Hao P, et al. 2010. [Effect of fluoride on human hypothalamus-hypophysis-testis axis hormones]. [Article in Chinese]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 39(1):53-5.

Isbel TS, Villareal-Armamento R. 2010. What Is Your Guess? A Case of Thick but Brittle Bones and Instant Tea. Clinical Chemistry 56(6):1041-42.

Izquierdo-Vega JA, et al. 2010. NADPH oxidase participates in the oxidative damage caused by fluoride in rat spermatozoa. Protective role of a-tocopherol. J Appl Toxicol. 2010 Nov 19. doi: 10.1002/jat.1600. [Epub ahead of print]

Kalia LV, et al. (2010). Thoracic myelopathy from coincident fluorosis and epidural lipomatosis. Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 37:276-78.

Kant V, et al. 2010. Alterations in electrocardiographic parameters after subacute exposure of fluoride and ameliorative action of aluminum sulphate in goats. Biol Trace Elem Res 134:188-94.

Klein RZ, et al. 2010. Relation of severity of maternal hypothyroidism to cognitive development of offspring. Journal of Medical Screening 8(1):18-20.

Kumar N, et al. 2010. Effects of sodium fluoride on the electrocardiogram of male rabbits. Fluoride 43(2):124-7.

Kumar T, Takalkar A. 2010. Study of the effects of drinking water naturally contaminated with  fluorides on the health of children. Biomedical Research 21:423-27.

Liu YJ, et al. 2010. Alterations of nAChRs and ERK1/2 in the brains of rats with chronic fluorosis and their connections with the decreased capacity of learning and memory. Toxicol Lett. 192(3):324-9.

Martinez-Mier EA, Soto-Rojas AE. 2010. Differences in exposure and biological markers of fluoride among White and African American children. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 70:234-40.

Rodondi N, et al. 2010. Subclinical hypothyroidism and the risk of coronary heart disease and mortality. JAMA 304(12):1365-74.

Sang ZC, et al. 2010. [X-ray analysis on 114 patients with moderate endemic skeletal fluorosis by treatment of Guo’s Chinese herbal]. [Article in Chinese]. Zhongguo Gu Shang. 23(5):379-82.

Shorter JP, et al. 2010. Comparison of two village primary schools in northern Tanzania affected by fluorosis. International Health 2:269-74.

Sun Z, et al. 2010. Effects of sodium fluoride on hyperactivation and Ca2+ signaling pathway in sperm from mice: an in vivo study. Arch Toxicol. 84(5):353-61.

Tiwari H, Rao MV. 2010. Curcumin supplementation protects from genotoxic effects of arsenic and fluoride. Food & Chemical Toxicology 48(5):1234-8.

Varol E, et al. 2010a. Impact of chronic fluorosis on left ventricular diastolic and global functions. Sci Tot Environ 408:2295-8.

Varol E, et al. 2010b. Aortic elasticity is impaired in patients with endemic fluorosis. Biol Trace Elem Res 133:121-7.

Vasant RA, et al. 2010. Therapeutic benefits of glibenclamide in fluoride intoxicated diabetic rats. Fluoride 43(2): 141-9.

Wang G, et al. 2010. The influence of drinking different concentration of NaF on learning-memory behaviors of rats in the brain. Studies of Trace Elements & Health 23(2).

Wu PF, et al. 2010. Morphologic observation of mouse testicular tissue lesions induced by fluorine. Animal Husbandry and Feed Science. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-NMXK201004011.htm


Ba Y, et al. 2009. Effect of different fluoride and iodine concentration in drinking water on children’s dental fluorosis and thyroid function. Chinese Journal of Public Health 25(8):942-43.

Bronstein AC, et al. 2009. 2008 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS): 26th Annual Report. Clinical Toxicology 47:911-1084.

Cai Q, Li Hong. 2009. Effects of Fluoride on the Thyroid Morphology and Thyroid Peroxidase and Serum Thyroid Hormones. Journal of Liaoning Medical University. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-JZYX200905012.htm

Erciyas K, Sarikaya R. 2009. Genotoxic evaluation of sodium fluoride in the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART). Food & Chemical Toxicology 47(11):2860-2.

Gheorghe KR, et al. (2009). Expression of 5-lipoxygenase and 15-lipoxygenase in rheumatoid arthritis synovium and effects of intraarticular glucocorticoids. Arthritis Research & Therapy 11(3):R83.

Gao Y, et al. 2009. [Effects of learning and memory of fluoride and the antagonism of selenium in rat.] [Study in Chinese] Studies of Trace Elements and Health 26(2).

Garcia-Montalvo EA, et al. 2009. Fluoride exposure impairs glucose tolerance via decreased insulin expression and oxidative stress. Toxicology 263: 75-83.

Jones RL, et al. 2009. Trends in blood lead levels and blood lead testing among US children aged 1 to 5 years, 1988-2004.  Pediatrics 123(3):e376-85.

Kaur T, et al. 2009. Effect of concurrent chronic exposure of fluoride and aluminum on rat brain. Drug & Chem. Toxicol. 32(3): 215-21.

Kindt JH, et al. (2009). In situ obersvation of fluoride-ion induced hydroxyapatite-collagen detachment on bone fracture surfaces by atomic force microscopy. Nanotechnology 18:135102.

Kumar H, et al. 2009. Skeletal fluorosis causing high cervical myelopathy.J Clin Neurosci. 16(6):828-30.

Levy SM, et al. (2009). Associations of fluoride intake with children’s bone measures at age 11. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 37(5):416-26.

Li F, et al. 2009. The impact of endemic fluorosis caused by the burning of coal on the development of intelligence in children. Journal of Environmental Health 26(4):838-40.

Niu R, et al. 2009. Decreased learning ability and low hippocampus glutamate in offspring rats exposed to fluoride and lead. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 28(2):254-8.

Robinson K, VandeVusse L. 2009. Exploration of African-American women’s infant feeding choices. Journal of the National Black Nurses Association 20(2):32-7.

Sharma JD, et al. 2009. Gastric discomforts from fluoride in drinking water. Fluoride 42:286–291.

Silva de Castilho L, et al. 2009. Perceptions of adolescents and young people regarding endemic dental fluorosis in a rural area of Brazil: Psychosocial suffering. Health and Social Care in the Community Vol. 17, p. 557.

Thurner PJ, et al. (2009). The effect of NaF in vitro on the mechanical and material properties of trabecular and cortical bone. Advanced Materials 21:451-57.

Zhang J, et al. 2009. [Influence of fluorosis on learning memory of pup rats and activities of SOD and content of MDA in brain.] [Study in Chinese] Chinese Journal of Public Health 25(11):1347-48.

Zhang R, et al. 2009. A stable and sensitive testing system for potential carcinogens based on DNA damage-induced gene expression in human HepG2 cell. Toxicology In Vitro. 23(1):158-65.


Bennett P, et al. 2008. A reaction-time study of social, health, and personal attributions in relation to fluorosed teeth. Psychology, Health & Medicine 13:75-86.

Caldwell KL, et al. 2008. Iodine status of the U.S. population, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004. Thyroid 18(11):1207-14.

Chen SJ, et al. 2008. Testis damage induced by chronic fluorosis and antagonism of taurine-zinc. Journal of Environment and Health. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-HJYJ200801019.htm

Gupta AK, et al. 2008. Quadriparesis–A rare presentation of skeletal fluorosis. J. Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine 9:201-04.

He Y, et al. 2008. Effects of protein versus calcium supplementation on bone metabolism and development in fluoride-exposed offspring rats fed protein- and calcium-deficient diets. Fluoride 41:192-98.

Lyaruu DM, et al. 2008. The effect of fluoride on enamel and dentin formation in the uremic rat incisor. Pediatric Nephology  23:1973-79.

Marshman Z, et al. 2008. The impact of developmental defects of enamel on young people in the UK. Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology 37:45-57.

Pontigo-Loyola A, et al. 2008. Dental fluorosis in 12- and 15-year-olds at high altitudes in above-optimal fluoridated communities in Mexico. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 68(3):163-66.

Sharma JD, et al. 2008. Amelioration of fluoride toxicity in rats through vitamins (C, D) and calcium. Toxicology International 15:111-6. Available from: http://www.toxicologyinternational.com/text.asp?2008/15/2/111/63167 

Theppeang K, et al. 2008. Gender and race/ethnicity differences in lead dose biomarkers. American Journal of Public Health 98(7):1248-55. Wang Z, et al. 2008. Changes in basic metabolic elements associated with the degeneration and ossification of ligamenta flava. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine 31:279-84.

Zhang M, et al. 2008. Effects of fluoride on DNA damage, S-phase cell-cycle arrest and the expression of NF-kappaB in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Toxicology Letters 179(1):1-5.

Zhang W, et al. 2008. Expressions of iNOS and VEGF mRNAs in thyroid gland of rat with goiter induced by fluoride. Chinese Veterinary Science. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZGSY200803018.htm


Fulgoni V, et al. 2007. Dairy consumption and related nutrient intake in African-American adults and children in the United States: continuing survey of food intakes by individuals 1994-1996, 1998, and the National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2000. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 107(2):256-64.

Ibarra-Santana C, et al. 2007. Enamel hypoplasia in children with renal disease in a fluoridated area. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 31(4):274-8.

Kindt JH, et al. (2007). In situ observation of fluoride-ion induced hydroxyapatite-collagen detachment on bone fracture surfaces by atomic force microscopy. Nanotechnology 18:135102.

Kurland ES, et al. 2007. Recovery from skeletal fluorosis (an enigmatic, American case). J Bone Miner Res. 22(1):163-70.

Wang W, et al. 2007. Thoracic ossification of ligamentum flavum caused by skeletal fluorosis. Eur Spine J. 16(8):1119-28.

Watters JL, et al. 2007. Associations of antioxidant nutrients and oxidative DNA damage in healthy African-American and White adults. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 16(7):1428-36.


Cai Z. 2006. Determination the changes of rooster sperm quality induced by chronic fluorosis. Livestock and Poultry Industry. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-XQYI200612009.htm

Chinoy NJ, et al. 2006. Effects of fluoride ingestion with protein deficient or protein enriched diets on sperm function of mice. Fluoride 39:11-16.

Ge XJ, et al. (2006). Investigation of osteoarthritis in middle-aged and old people living in drinking water type fluoride area in Gaomi City. Preventive Medicine Tribune. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-YXWX200601026.htm

Goolsby SL, et al. 2006. Consumption of calcium among African American adolescent girls. Ethnicity & Disease 16(2):476-82.

Gotzfried F. 2006. Legal aspects of fluoride in salt, particularly within the EU. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 116:371-75.

Liu QB, et al. 2006. Investigation on combined toxicosis of fluorine-aluminum in Ewenke Qi Inner Mongolia. Chinese Journal of Control of Endemic Diseases. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-DYBF200605010.htm

Mou S, et al. 2006. Effect of fluorine, selenium and cadmium on lipid peroxide and microelements in rat’s testicle. Chinese Journal of Public Health. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZGGW200603045.htm

Sarkar SD, et al. 2006. Management of fluoride induced testicular disorders by calcium and vitamin-E co-administration in the albino rat. Reprod Toxicol. 22(4):606-12.

Williams DM, et al. 2006. Characteristics attributed to individuals with dental fluorosis. Community Dental Health 23:209-16.

Zakrzewska H, Udala J. 2006. [In vitro influence of sodium fluoride on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content in ram semen]. [Article in Polish]. Ann Acad Med Stetin. 52 Suppl 1:109-11.


Byers KG, Savaiano DA. 2005. The myth of increased lactose intolerance in African-Americans. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 24(6 Suppl):569S-73S.

Cinar A, Selcuk M. 2005. Effects of chronic fluorosis on thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and protein-bound iodine in cows. Fluoride 35:65-68. [See study]

Das S, et al. 2005. Induction of oxidative stress on reproductive and metabolic organs in sodium fluoride-treated male albino rats: protective effect of testosterone and vitamin e coadministration. Toxicol Mech Methods. 15(4):271-7.

Edwards M, et al. 2005. An assessment of teenagers’ perceptions of dental fluorosis using digital stimulation and web-based testing. Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology 33:298-306.

European Commission. 2005. The Safety of Fluorine Compounds in Oral Hygiene Products for Children Under the Age of 6 Years. European Commission, Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-General, Scientific Committee on Consumer Products, September 20.

Jiang Q, et al. 2005. Effect of fluoride on expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in germ cells of rats’ testes. Chinese Journal of Endemiology. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZDFB200505017.htm

LI Y, et al. 2005. Effects of sodium fluoride on the actin cytoskeleton of murine ameloblasts. Archives of Oral Biology 50(8):681-8.

Lucas VS, Roberts GJ. 2005. Oro-dental health in children with chronic renal failure and after renal transplantation: a clinical review. Pediatr Nephrol. 20(10):1388-94.

Muthukumar N. 2005. Ossification of the ligamentum flavum as a result of fluorosis causing myelopathy: report of two cases. Neurosurgery. 56(3):E622.


Alkhatib MN, et al. 2004. Aesthetically objectionable fluorosis in the United Kingdom. British Dental Journal 197:325-28

Allen K, et al. 2004. Using microabrasive material to remove fluorosis stains. Journal of the American Dental Association 135:319-23.

An L, et al. 2004. Combined effects of vitamin E and fluoride on reproductive function in male mice. Chinese Journal of Control of Endemic Disease. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-DYBF200403001.htm

Dai G, et al. 2004. Distributive regulation of bone substance change in various population sub-groups with different fluoride concentrations in drinking water. Chinese Journal of Endemiology. Available at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZDFB200402031.htm

Grucka-Mamczar E, et al. 2004. [Activities of some enzymes and concentration of ammonia in serum of rats with fluoridehyperglycemia]. [Article in Polish]. Ann Acad Med Stetin. 50 Suppl 1:36-41.

Ji F, et al. 2004. Study on the cardiovascular damage of skeletal fluorosis patients. Chin J Ctrl Endem Dis 19(6):321-3 (Abstract).

Kilicalp D, et al. 2004. Effects of chronic fluorosis on electrocardiogram in dogs. Fluoride 37(2):96-101.

Liu J, et al. 2004. Imaging value on bone turnover of skeletal fluorosis. Foreign Medical Sciences-Section of Medgeography. Available at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-GONE200402017.htm

Ornitsan E, et al. (2004). [Features of occupational fluorosis course]. [Article in Russian]. Med Tr Prom Ekol. (12):27-9.

Sharma S, et al. 2004. Adherence to the food guide pyramid recommendations among African Americans and Latinos: results from the Multiethnic Cohort. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 104(12):1873-7.

Shen X, et al. 2004. [Effect of iodine and selenium on learning memory impairment induced by fluorosis and blood biochemical criterion of rats.] [Study in Chinese] Occupation & Health 20(1):6-8.

Shulman JD, et al. 2004. Perceptions of desirable tooth color among parents, dentists and children. Journal of the American Dental Association 135:595-604.

Sigurjóns H, et al. 2004. Parental perception of fluorosis among 8-year-old children living in three communities in Iceland, Ireland and England. Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology 32(Suppl 1):34-8.


Bao W, et al. (2003). [Investigation of osteoarthritis in Fengjiabao, Asuo, Qiancheng villages—to research the relationship between Fluorosis and Osteoarthritis. [Article in Chinese]. Chinese Journal of Endemiology. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZDFB200306012.htm

Bernard SM, McGeehin MA. 2003. Prevalence of blood lead levels >5 micro g/dL among US children 1 to 5 years of age and socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with blood of lead levels 5 to 10 micro g/dL, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Pediatrics 112(6 Pt 1):1308-13.

Chlubek D, et al. 2003. Activity of pancreatic antioxidative enzymes and malondialdehyde concentrations in rats with hyperglycemia caused by fluoride intoxication. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 17:57-60.

Cui LX, et al. 2003. Experimental study on effect of fluoride on reproductive system of male rats. Chinese Journal of Endemiology. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZDFB406.007.htm

Dönmez N, Çinar A. 2003. Effects of chronic fluorosis on electrocardiogram in sheep. Biol Trace Elem Res 92:115-21.

Shao Q, et al. 2003. Study of cognitive function impairment caused by chronic fluorosis. Chinese Journal of Endemiology 22(4):336-38.

Watson WA, et al. 2003. 2002 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 21:353-421.

Zhan Z, et al. 2003. Bone mineral density of forearm of female residents in endemic fluorosis area. Chinese Journal of Osteoporosis. Available at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZGZS200302013.htm


Astrom AN, Mashoto K. 2002. Determinants of self-rated oral health status among school children in northern Tanzania. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 12:90-100.

DePaula CA, et al. 2002. Changing the structurally effective mineral content of bone with in vitro fluoride treatment. J Biomech. 35(3):355-61.


Gupta SK, et al. 2001. Compensatory hyperparathyroidism following high fluoride ingestion – a clinico – biochemical correlation. Indian Pediatr. 38(2):139-46.

Liu GY, et al. 2001. Effects of fluoride on thyroid structure in chicks. Chinese Journal of Endemiology. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZDFB200102003.htm

Shashi A, Thapar SP. 2001. Histopathology of myocardial damage in experimental fluorosis in rabbits. Fluoride 34(1):43-50.

Sohn W, et al. 2001. Fluid consumption related to climate among children in the United States. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 61(2):99-106.

Wan G, et al. 2001. Determination and analysis on multimark of test of patients with endemic fluorosis. Chinese Jouranl of Endemiology 20(2):137-39.

Wang X, et al. 2001. Effects of high iodine and high fluorine on children’s intelligence and thyroid function. Chinese Journal of Endemiology 20(4):288-90.

Zhang M, et al. (2001). Positive correlation between fluoride in drinking water and markers of bone resorption (abstract). Fluoride 34:214.


Experts’ Group of Ministry of Health for Epidemiological Survey of Fluorosis of Tea Drinking Type. 2000. Relations between state of skeletal fluorosis of brick-tea type and?brick tea intake. Chinese Journal of Endemiology. Available at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZDFB200004012.htm

Harter S. 2000. Is self-esteem only skin deep? The inextricable link between physical appearance and self-esteem. Reclaiming Children and Youth 9(3):133-38.

Hattori Y, et al. 2000. Predominant contribution of the G protein-mediated mechanism to NaF-induced vascular contractions in diabetic rats: association with an increased level of G(qalpha) expression. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 292(2):761-8.

Lu Y, et al. 2000. Effect of water defluoridation by activated magnesia on sperm morphology in mice. Chinese Journal of Control of Endemic Diseases. Available online at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-DYBF200003002.htm

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