Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to better understand alterations in renal metabolism induced by fluoride (F). Three groups of weanling male Wistar rats were treated with drinking water containing 0 (control), 5, or 50 ppm F for 60 days (n=6/group). Kidneys were collected for proteomic and histological (HE) analysis. After protein isolation, renal proteome profiles were examined using 2-DE and Colloidal Coomassie Blue staining. Protein spots with a 2-fold significant difference as detected by quantitative intensity analysis (Image Master Platinum software) and t-test (p<0.05) were excised and analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS (matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry). The histological analysis revealed no damage in kidneys induced by F, except for a vascular congestion in the 50 ppm F group. Between control vs 50 ppm F, and control vs 5 ppm F groups, 12 and 6 differentially expressed proteins were detected, respectively. Six proteins, mainly related with metabolism, detoxification and housekeeping, were successfully identified. At the high F group, pyruvate carboxylase, a protein involved in the formation of oxaloacetate was found to be downregulated, while enoyl coenzyme A hydratase, involved in fatty acids oxidation, was found to be upregulated. Thus, proteomic analysis can provide new insights into the alterations in renal metabolism after F exposure, even in low doses.