Fluoride Action Network



To elucidate the participation of the independent and combined long term effect of various concentrations of iodine and fluorine on the pathogenesis of goiter and fluorosis in mice.


Nine drinking water supplies with different iodine and fluorine content were prepared by combination of potassium iodate and sodium fluoride solutions in bidistilled water. The concentrations of iodide were: 1. iodine deficiency (ID): 0.0; 2. iodine normal (IN): 20.0; 3. iodine excess (IE) 2500.0 ug/l; and these of fluoride were: 1. fluoride deficiency (FD) 0.0; 2. fluoride normal 0.6; 3. fluoride excess (FE), 30.0 mg/l. A total of 288 Kunmim mice was divided into 9 groups consisting of 32 animals each and each group, in addition to basal diet, received one of following iodide/fluoride mixtures: ID+FD, ID+FN, ID+FE, IN+FD, IN+FN, IN+FE, IE+FD, IE+FN, IE+FE. By such manner, one half of the animals of each group was treated for 100 days and the other half for 150 days.


It was found that ID only and IE only could both induce the goiter. FE induced dental fluorosis and increased fluorine content in the bone. In addition, fluorine also affected the thyroid changes induced by ID or IE. After 100 days of treatment, fluorine showed some stimulatory effect on the thyroid in ID conditions and inhibitory effect in IE conditions. After 150 days, however, the effects of fluorine on the thyroid reversed as compared with that of 100 days. On the other hand, difference of iodide intake could also increase the toxic effects of FE on the incisors and bones. The rate and degree of the incisor fluorosis, the fluorine contents in the bone were significantly higher in the ID+FE group than those in the IN+FE and IE+FE groups.


Both iodine deficiency and excess induced goiter as well as other functional and histopathological changes in the mouse thyroid. Excessive fluorine caused fluorosis of incisors and limb bones. In addition, iodine and fluorine do have mutually interacting effects on both goiter and fluorosis in the experimental mice.