Fluoride Action Network


Background: Fluorosis is an endemic condition with prevalence in 19 states and union territories in India. It is an urgent task to survey the fluorosis-related problems in these regions.

Objective: To study the clinical manifestations of water-born fluorosis among schoolchildren in Kaiwara village of India.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in all schoolchildren between 1st and 7th standard studying in Kaiwara village, Karnataka State, India. Parameters studied included fluoride ingestion through drinking water, fluoride excretion through urine, clinical features of fluorosis. These included dental staining, genu valgum, goiter, and conjunctival xerosis. Fluoride in water and urine samples was estimated using an ion meter.

Results: Of the 416 schoolchildren studied, 24.0% children had dental fluorosis, 11.4% children had genu valgum, 20.9% had goiter, and 10.3% had xerosis of the conjunctiva. One hundred children passed high levels of fluoride in urine, while 90% of water samples consumed by the local residents contained high levels of fluoride.

Conclusion: It was proved that water-born fluorosis is endemic in Kaiwara village. The endemic prevalence of the syndrome of fluorosis among school children was characterized by dental mottling, genu valgum, endemic goiter, and xerosis of the conjunctiva.