Spontaneous motor activity, rota-rod performance (motor co-ordination), body weight gain, food intake, activities of total cholinesterase (blood) and acetylcholinesterase (brain), and dental structure were determined in adult female rats treated with a very high dose of sodium fluoride (500 ppm in drinking water) alone and in combination with calcium carbonate (50 mg/kg body weight by oral intubation) for 60 days. The concentration of fluoride and calcium were measured in the serum of these animals. Administration of sodium fluoride with drinking water produced both behavioural and dental toxicities and not lethality in the present study. A suppression of spontaneous motor activity, a shortening of rota-rod endurance time, a decreased body weight gain and food intake, a suppression of total cholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase activities and dental lesion were observed in test animals. Serum fluoride concentration was raised markedly and that of calcium was decreased in these animals. The effects of sodium fluoride were prevented significantly when animals received calcium carbonate along with sodium fluoride. Serum fluoride content was decreased and that of calcium was restored to control level in these animals. These results indicate that calcium prevents not only fluoride-induced hypocalcemia but also the locomotor behavioral and dental toxicities of fluoride by decreasing bioavailability of fluoride.