Fluoride Action Network


1. Fluoride (F) is an essential trace element that has protective effects against bone mineral loss. However, it becomes toxic at higher doses and induces some adverse effects on a number of physiological functions, including reproduction. The aims of this study were to examine F-induced oxidative stress that promotes production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to investigate the role of vitamins C and E against possible F-induced endometrial impairment in rats. 2. Rats were divided into three groups: control, F and F plus vitamins. The F group was given 100 mg/L orally for 60 days. Combined vitamins were also administered orally. Fluoride administration to control rats significantly increased endometrial malondialdehyde (MDA) but decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activities. Endometrial glandular and stromal apoptosis were investigated by DNA nick end-labelling (TUNEL) method on each sample and the mean endometrial apoptotic index (AI) was calculated. 3. Vitamin administration with F treatment caused endometrial MDA to decrease, but SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activities to increase, all to significant levels. Vitamins showed a histopathological protection against F-induced endometrial damage. There was a significant difference in the AI between the groups. Lymphocyte and eosinophil infiltration in stroma in F-treated rats were more than those in the control and F + Vit groups. 4. It can be concluded that oxidative endometrial damage plays an important role in F-induced endometrial toxicity, and the modulation of oxidative stress with vitamins reduces F-induced endometrial damage both at the biochemical and histological levels.