Fluoride Action Network


Fluorine (F) bioaccumulation has been reported in the organs and tissues of organisms, including intestine. The intestinal mucosa is very important to the immune development. Meanwhile, cytokines are present in the normal intestinal mucosal and play an important role in the immune function. Thus, changes of the cytokine contents are related to the state of intestinal mucosal immunity. In this study, we investigated the changes in contents of cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon gamma (IFN-?), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) induced by dietary high F in the mucosa of different parts of intestines (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 280 one-day-old healthy avian broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet (F 22.6 mg/kg) or the same basal diet supplemented with 400, 800, and 1,200 mg?F/kg (high F groups I, II, and III) in the form of sodium fluoride for 42 days. The experimental data showed that the contents of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-?, and TNF-? in the intestinal mucosa were significantly decreased in the high F groups II and III when compared with those of the control group from 14 to 42 days of age. It was concluded that dietary F in the range of 800-1,200 mg/kg significantly reduced the contents of aforementioned cytokines in the intestinal mucosa of broilers, which could impact the function of intestinal mucosal immunity through the pathways that decreased the lymphocyte population and/or lymphocyte activation.