Fluoride Action Network


Influence of fluoride on exocrine pancreas cells was examined morphologically with traditional and prolonged osmium fixation techniques for electron microscopy in the enamel fluorosis model rats injected subcutaneously twice a day with 20 mg/kg body weight of sodium fluoride. Although the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) of exocrine pancreas cells in control rats was laminated and oriented parallel to the circumference of the nucleus, the rER of the cells in NaF-treated rats was dilated, disrupted the laminated arrangement, and changed to the globular-shape rER. Many intracisternal granules were formed in these globular-shape rER of the cells exposed to fluoride. Lots of autophagosomes were also seen in the exocrine cells with NaF treatment. The autophagosomes were limited with a double or multiple membranes, and contained cytoplasmic organelles and/or the intracisternal granules. The outer and inner leaflets of double membranes of the autophagosomes were usually separated by a distinct electron-lucent area. In prolonged osmium fixation, the area between the double membranes of the autophagosome was filled with osmiun reaction deposits. Many autophagosomes were encircled with the single or multiple osmiophilic layers. In some cases, the osmium positive saccules also surrounded the free surface of the globular-shape rER containing intracisternal granules. These findings indicate that fluoride disrupts the export of zymogens from the rER, resulting in formation of intracisternal granules and autophagosomes, and that the osmiophilic saccules participate in sequestration of cytoplasmic organelles in forming autophagosomes.