The authors’ research focuses on polyuria, natriuresis, glucosuria, glycemia, and renal calcification in occupational lead poisoning and endemic fluorosis. Changes in electrolyte mobilization and in glucose metabolism and transport following the administration of lead compounds or fluoride were examined to elucidate these mechanisms. The results suggest fundamental approaches to the mechanism of aging and life style diseases. Our results show that: 1) Natriuresis and polyuria in lead poisoning and fluorosis are due to a decrease in renal Na/K-ATPase activity; 2) Renal calcification in fluorosis is due to stimulation of parathyroid function and activation of the renal phosphatidylinositol cascade; 3) Glycemia in fluorosis is due to elevation of renal and hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activities; 4) Glusosuria in fluorosis is due to decreased renal Na/K-ATPase activity (but fluoride administered directly did not damage the renal Na/glucose cotransporter (SGLT); 5) Renal calcification in fluorosis is due to stimulation of parathyroid function; and 6) The decrease in renal Na/K-ATPase and SGLT activities with aging and hypertension is due to a decrease in phosphorylation activity by protein kinase C (PKC) etc. (decrease in PKC productivity with aging and hypertension).