The recent development of proteomic techniques has enabled investigators to directly examine the population of proteins present in biological systems. We first report here the proteomic changes of renal protein induced by fluoride. To investigate molecular mechanisms of renal injury induced by fluoride, proteins were isolated from rat kidney and profiled by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). With the analysis of Image-Master 2D Elite software, 141 up-regulated and eight down-regulated protein spots in 2DE gels of fluoride-treated group were gained by comparison to the control group, 13 of which were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The identified proteins are mainly related with cell proliferation, metabolism and oxidative stress, and provide a valuable clue to explore the mechanism of renal fluorosis. This study also shows that the proteomic techniques were powerful in fluoride toxical field.