Fluoride Action Network


Mineral content is one of the main predictors of the mechanical properties of bone tissue. The contribution of the bone mineral phase to the mechanical properties of bone has been investigated by reducing the mineral content of bone with different in vitro treatment techniques such as hydrochloric acid (HCl), ethylenedinitrilo tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and fluoride ion treatment. In this study, we propose a new treatment technique which combines fluoride and phosphate ions. Bovine femur specimens were used to determine the mechanical properties of cortical bone after different fluoride phosphate ion combination treatments. The treatment solutions, which contain different fluoride and phosphate ion concentrations, dissolved part of the bone mineral in a uniform manner throughout the bone samples. Dissolution by products, which precipitated in the bone tissue, contained calcium fluoride with phosphate ions (CaF(2)/P) and fluorapatite/fluorhydroxyapatite-type material (FAp/FHAp) and acted as filler. Depending on the fluoride and phosphate concentration in a treatment solution, the precipitated material’s ratio of FAp/FHAp to total fluoride containing phase (FAp/FHAp + CaF(2)/P) in bone tissue also changed. High fluoride ion content in treatment solutions generated more CaF(2)/P type of precipitate, and low fluoride ion concentration generated more FAp/FHAp type precipitates as compared to high fluoride concentration treatments. These experiments show that phosphate ions are another important parameter of a treatment solution, in addition to ionic strength, pH, and the duration of treatment. In vitro, phosphate fluoride combinations partially dissolve bone mineral content in a wider range than fluoride treatment alone in a uniform manner. With this new technique one can control more precisely the partial dissolution of the bone mineral and mineral phase’s contribution to mechanical properties of bone tissue.