To find out the skeletal radiologic appearances of high aluminum fluorosis caused by burning coal as domestic fuel.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Thirty-nine cases of high aluminum fluorosis caused by eating corns baked by coal and china clay were studied. The authors also investigated the environmental conditions, clinical appearances and other laboratory test of the patients.
The skeletal radiographic appearances were very complicated. The main change was osteomalacia. Osteoporosis, osteosclerosis and dysplastic bone were also found. The radiographic appearances of osteomalacia included: decrease of bone density, haziness of bone structure, Looser?s zone, lucent zone of the pelvic margins, dense-lucent-dense zone in the metaphysis of long bone, osteoporosis zone under the epiphysis, signs of ricket disease, pelvic malformation acetabular invagination and curved tibia and fibula. Bone transformation manifestation was also a prominent feature.
We suggest that high aluminum fluorosis is a special type of fluorosis presenting as osteomalacia. Our results provide evidences to establish criteria for classification of fluorosis.
Industrial Fluorosis [Carnow et al.]
SUMMARY: In 1242 apparently healthy and actively employed workers of a Canadian aluminum facility, the history of musculoskeletal symptoms, of the incidence of fractures, of neck and back surgery, as well as the x-ray findings were reviewed. A highly significant relationship of exposure to fluoride was established with the frequency
Fluorine and Fluorosis [June 1944].
Excerpt The first account of mottled enamel in human beings was given in 1902 by Eager of the United States Public Health Service who noticed its frequency among Italian emigrants from Naples. Black and McKay (1916) found it occurring in various parts of the U.S.A. and described it more fully in
Effects of smoking, use of aluminum utensils, and tamarind consumption on fluorosis in a fluorotic village of Andhra Pradesh, India
A field study was undertaken to determine effects of tamarind, the use of aluminium (Al) cooking utensils, and smoking on dental and skeletal fluorosis in the randomly selected fluoride (F) endemic village of Buttlapally in the Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India, where the F level in the drinking water is
Effect of fluoride on aluminum-induced bone disease in rats with renal failure
Aluminum (Al) accumulation in renal failure is an etiological factor in the pathogenesis of low turnover bone disease. Aluminum-induced impairment of mineralization has been related to a reduced extent of active bone-forming surface. The present study investigated the effect of fluoride, a potent stimulator of osteoblast number, on the toxicity
Association between fluoride, magnesium, aluminum and bone quality in renal osteodystrophy
INTRODUCTION: Trace elements are known to influence bone metabolism; however, their effects may be exacerbated in renal failure because dialysis patients are unable to excrete excess elements properly. Our study correlated bone quality in dialysis patients with levels of bone fluoride, magnesium, and aluminum. A number of studies have linked
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Fluoridation, Dialysis & Osteomalacia
In the 1960s and 1970s, doctors discovered that patients receiving kidney dialysis were accumulating very high levels of fluoride in their bones and blood, and that this exposure was associated with severe forms of osteomalacia, a bone-softening disease that leads to weak bones and often excruciating bone pain. Based on
Mayo Clinic: Fluoridation & Bone Disease in Renal Patients
The available evidence suggests that some patients wtih long-term renal failure are being affected by drinking water with as little as 2 ppm fluoride. The finding of adverse effects in patients drinking water with 2 ppm of fluoride suggests that a few similar cases may be found in patients imbibing 1 ppm, especially if large volumes are consumed, or in heavy tea drinkers. The finding of adverse effects in patients drinking water with 2 ppm of fluoride suggests that a few similar cases may be found in patients imbibing 1 ppm, especially if large volumes are consumed, or in heavy tea drinkers and if fluoride is indeed the cause. It would seem prudent, therefore, to monitor the fluoride intake of patients with renal failure living in high fluoride areas.
Factors which increase the risk for skeletal fluorosis
The risk for developing skeletal fluorosis, and the course the disease will take, is not solely dependent on the dose of fluoride ingested. Indeed, people exposed to similar doses of fluoride may experience markedly different effects. While the wide range in individual response to fluoride is not yet fully understood, the following are some of the factors that are believed to play a role.
Skeletal Fluorosis: The Misdiagnosis Problem
It is a virtual certainty that there are individuals in the general population unknowingly suffering from some form of skeletal fluorosis as a result of a doctor's failure to consider fluoride as a cause of their symptoms. Proof that this is the case can be found in the following case reports of skeletal fluorosis written by doctors in the U.S. and other western countries. As can be seen, a consistent feature of these reports is that fluorosis patients--even those with crippling skeletal fluorosis--are misdiagnosed for years by multiple teams of doctors who routinely fail to consider fluoride as a possible cause of their disease.
As demonstrated by the studies below, skeletal fluorosis may produce adverse symptoms, including arthritic pains, clinical osteoarthritis, gastrointestinal disturbances, and bone fragility, before the classic bone change of fluorosis (i.e., osteosclerosis in the spine and pelvis) is detectable by x-ray. Relying on x-rays, therefore, to diagnosis skeletal fluorosis will invariably fail to protect those individuals who are suffering from the pre-skeletal phase of the disease. Moreover, some individuals with clinical skeletal fluorosis will not develop an increase in bone density, let alone osteosclerosis, of the spine. Thus, relying on unusual increases in spinal bone density will under-detect the rate of skeletal fluoride poisoning in a population.
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