Objective To investigate the relationship between lycopene exposure and neurobehavior and its mechanism in mouse exposed to drinking water fluorosis.
Methods Sixty adult mice were randomly divided into six groups (ten animals in each group) : control group, lycopene group, sodium fluoride (NaF) group, NaF + low, medium, high dose lycopene groups. After 6 months treatment, the fluoride ion selective electrode method was used to determine the fluorine concentrations of urine, blood and hippocampus. The spectrophotometry was used to determine the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidease (GSH-PX), catalase (CAT), and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and hippocampus. We also examined neurobehavioral abnormalities with WT-200 water maze.
Results Compared with the control group, NaF administration induced a decrease in body weight markedly ( P <0.05), the fluorine concentrations of urine, blood, and hippocampus were 3.76 ± 1.60, 19.26 ± 0.62, and 1.19 ± 0.12 mg/kg and increased markedly ( P <0.05). At the same time, NaF administration induced oxidative stress as evidenced by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation measured as MDA in serum and brain tissues ( P <0.05). Moreover, significantly decreased activities of SOD, GSH-PX, CAT were observed in the examined tissues ( P <0.05). Compared with NaF group, the fluorine concentrations of urine, blood, and hippocampus were 2.06 ± 0.47,13.40 ± 0.35, and 0.52 ± 0.21 mg / kg dose in NaF + high dose lycopene group ( P <0.05). The induced oxidative stress and the alterations in antioxidant system were normalized by the oral administration of medium and high dose lycopene treatment ( P <0.05). Compared with the control group, the escape time and activity time were 20.84 ± 0.72 and 16.11 ± 0.77 s ( P < 0.05) in NaF group. Compared with NaF group, the escape time and activity time were 14.01 ± 0.82 and 7.38 ± 0.37 s in high dose lycopene group (P <0.05, P <0.01).
Conclusion Lycopene administration could minimize the toxic effects of fluoride indicating its free radical scavenging and powerful antioxidant activities.