Fluoride Action Network


An investigation was undertaken in three endemic fluorotic areas of Punjab State, India, to assess the prevalence of skeletal deformities. The concentration of fluoride in drinking water varies from 2.3 to 22.5 mg/L. The patients affected with skeletal fluorosis revealed joint pain in both upper and lower limbs, numbing and tingling of the extremities, back pains and knock-knees. Prevalence of skeletal fluorosis was found to be 29% of grade-I, 51% of grade-II and 20% of grade-III and was higher in males (63%) compared with females (37%).