Fluoride Action Network


Pineal glands secrets melatonin and various proteins and peptides which has many physiological functions. In keeping with this view, present experiment was conducted to know the effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pineal proteins (PP) at different dose level on fluoride-induced changes in plasma biochemicals and blood antioxidants enzymes in female rats. For this, we took 30 adult female Wistar rats (133-145 g body weights, BW) and divided into five groups (control, group I; 150 ppm fluoride (F), group II; F+ 50 µg pineal proteins, group III; F+ 100 µg PP, group IV; F+ 200 µg PP, group V). We administered fluoride (150 ppm, drinking water) and F+ pineal proteins at 50, 100, and 200 µg/kg BW, i.p. daily for 21 days. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiments to estimate plasma glucose, proteins, F, lipid peroxidation (LPO), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity. Red blood cells (RBCs) were separated for analysis of LPO, AChE, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) in different groups of animals. Total plasma glucose and protein level did not significantly change in F-treated rats. Plasma ALP and F level were significantly (p < 0.05) high in group II as compared with control and groups III, IV, and V. Administration of PP at different dose level significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the F concentration and ALP activity. Plasma and RBCs AChE activity was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in F-treated animals as compared with control rats and significantly (p < 0.05) elevated on exogenous administration of PP (groups III and IV). Plasma and RBCs LPO level was significantly (p < 0.05) high in F-alone-treated rats, and PP caused significant (p < 0.05) reduction of LPO in groups IV and V. However, PP treatment in group IV brought better amelioration of F-induced high LPO than in groups III and V. At no dose level, PP-ameliorated F-induced depression of RBCs GSH, CAT, GR, and GPx level. Interestingly, SOD activity was elevated in dose-dependent manner at different dose level of PP in groups III, IV, and V than control and F-administered rats. These findings clearly indicate the beneficial effects of buffalo pineal proteins on fluoride-induced adverse changes in certain plasma biochemical and blood antioxidant systems of rats. It further indicates that PP has dose-dependent ameliorative function against F-induced adverse effects in plasma and blood.

*Original abstract online at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12011-010-8733-y


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