Fluoride Action Network


Radiographs of 80 patients with severe endemic fluorosis of coal-burning type [CBEF] – 49 males and 31 females aged 30 to 70 years – were analysed to examine the changes to the bone substance, peripheral structure of bone, and joints. The changes to bone substance were: 1) osteosclerosis type, 62 cases (77.5%); 2) mixed type, 16 cases (21.25%); 3) osteoporosis type, one case (1.25%); 4) osteomalacia type, one case (1.25%). The changes to the joints were: articular lesions were found in the hips and elbows in 79 cases (98.75%), and in the knees in 75 cases (93.75%). When combinations of the above three changes occur, the classification of the disease is according to the most severe one of the three. Our findings can increase the accuracy of  X-ray diagnosis, making it more consistent with clinical diagnosis, thus improving prevention and treatment of CBEF.