Fluoride Action Network


Radiographs of 80 patients with severe endemic fluorosis of coal-burning type [CBEF] Р49 males and 31 females aged 30 to 70 years Рwere analysed to examine the changes to the bone substance, peripheral structure of bone, and joints. The changes to bone substance were: 1) osteosclerosis type, 62 cases (77.5%); 2) mixed type, 16 cases (21.25%); 3) osteoporosis type, one case (1.25%); 4) osteomalacia type, one case (1.25%). The changes to the joints were: articular lesions were found in the hips and elbows in 79 cases (98.75%), and in the knees in 75 cases (93.75%). When combinations of the above three changes occur, the classification of the disease is according to the most severe one of the three. Our findings can increase the accuracy of  X-ray diagnosis, making it more consistent with clinical diagnosis, thus improving prevention and treatment of CBEF.