Fluoride Action Network


To clarify the mechanisms of fluoride-induced airway diseases, we examined the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an important mediator of airway inflammation, in A549 human pulmonary epithelial cells treated with sodium fluoride (NaF). Following exposure to 5mM NaF, COX-2 protein and COX-2 transcript increased markedly. However, no change was observed in COX-1 expression. NaF-induced accumulation of COX-2 transcript was abolished by actinomycin D, but not cycloheximide. The level of prostaglandin E(2), a major product of COX enzymes, increased in response to NaF exposure, and its production was abolished by the selective COX-2 inhibitor NS-398. Phosphorylated forms of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)-including extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, and p38-increased after NaF exposure, while treatment with the MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor U0126 and the p38 inhibitor SB203580 markedly suppressed COX-2 expression. Furthermore, NaF-induced COX-2 expression was markedly suppressed by the Src family kinase (SFK) inhibitor PP2, but only partially suppressed by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor PD153035. These results suggest that NaF induces COX-2 expression by transcriptional up-regulation via p38 and ERK pathways, at least in part, and that SFKs may be upstream tyrosine kinases responsible for NaF-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells.