We investigated the effects of protein and mRNA expression levels on p53 induced by fluoride in human embryo hepatocyte L-02 cells. The protein and mRNA levels of p53 in L-02 cells were measured after in vitro cultured L-02 was exposed to sodium fluoride at different doses (40, 80, and 160 microg/ml) for 24 h. The results showed that the cell survival rate of L-02 cells in the high dose fluoride group was significantly lower than that of the control group. The protein expression levels of p53 in the middle and high dose fluoride group were significantly higher than in the control group and elevated with increasing fluoride concentration. The mRNA expression levels of p53 in the fluoride groups were markedly higher than in the control group. The mRNA expression level of p53 in the high dose fluoride group was however lower compared to the middle dose fluoride group, but similar to the low dose fluoride group. These finding suggest that fluoride can decrease the L-02 cells survival rate and induce protein and mRNA expressions of p53; however, there is no consistency between the protein expression level of p53 and the mRNA expression level.