Complete fluoride intake data from the 2000-2003 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey were used to examine questions outstanding from the Fluoridation of Water Supplies review process. In a quarter of the population, fluoride consumption from all sources exceeds the Safe Intake defined by the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy, regardless of water fluoride concentration. In areas supplied with fully fluoridated water, fluoride intake exceeds the recommended safe maximum in nearly two thirds of consumers. The implications are discussed and recommendations are made.
Fluoride intake and urinary fluoride excretion in 4- and 8-year-old children living in urban and rural areas of Southwest Nigeria
Objectives To estimate and compare total daily fluoride intake (TDFI), daily urinary fluoride excretion (DUFE), daily fluoride retention (DFR), fractional urinary fluoride excretion (FUFE) and fractional fluoride retention (FFR) in 4- and 8 year-old Nigerians and explore associations between these outcomes to improve understanding of fluoride metabolism. Methods Using a cross-sectional observational study,
Effects of water improvement and defluoridation on fluorosis-endemic areas in China: A meta-analysis.
Highlights The first analysis of the effect of improving water quality and reducing fluoride in China over 40 years. Analysis of the effect of water improvement and fluoride reduction in different provinces of China. We analyzed the effect of water improvement on dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, and fluoride content
[Biological exposure limits caused by co exposure to fluoride and arsenic based on Wnt signaling pathway].
Chronic fluoride-arsenic combined poisoning is a global public health problem. While the cause of the disease is clear, the pathogenesis is unknown. Given that there is no specific treatment, early prevention is particularly important. Biological exposure limits are designed to investigate the maximum allowable concentration of harmful effects from exogenous
Monitoring salt fluoridation programs through urinary excretion studies.
This paper reviews problems associated with urinary collection for the estimation of fluoride exposure and recent findings in this context. After intake of a salted meal at noon, children aged 9 to 14 excreted on average 45 microgF/h. Morning and nocturnal excretions were only 16 microgF/h with the exception of
Fractional urinary fluoride excretion of 6-7-year-old children attending schools in low-fluoride and naturally fluoridated areas in the UK
F is an important trace element for bones and teeth. The protective effect of F against dental caries is well established. Urine is the prime vehicle for the excretion of F from the body; however, the relationship between F intake and excretion is complex: the derived fractional urinary F excretion
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