Complete fluoride intake data from the 2000-2003 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey were used to examine questions outstanding from the Fluoridation of Water Supplies review process. In a quarter of the population, fluoride consumption from all sources exceeds the Safe Intake defined by the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy, regardless of water fluoride concentration. In areas supplied with fully fluoridated water, fluoride intake exceeds the recommended safe maximum in nearly two thirds of consumers. The implications are discussed and recommendations are made.
Fractional urinary fluoride excretion of 6-7-year-old children attending schools in low-fluoride and naturally fluoridated areas in the UK
F is an important trace element for bones and teeth. The protective effect of F against dental caries is well established. Urine is the prime vehicle for the excretion of F from the body; however, the relationship between F intake and excretion is complex: the derived fractional urinary F excretion
Effects of water improvement and defluoridation on fluorosis-endemic areas in China: A meta-analysis.
Highlights The first analysis of the effect of improving water quality and reducing fluoride in China over 40 years. Analysis of the effect of water improvement and fluoride reduction in different provinces of China. We analyzed the effect of water improvement on dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, and fluoride content
The safe exposure level to fluoride in pregnancy.
Three studies have now examined the safe exposure level to fluoride in pregnancy using benchmark dose analysis. In 2016, Hirzy et al. found that, for a benchmark response (BMR) of 1 IQ point, the lower confidence limit of the benchmark dose (BMDL) was a daily intake of approximately 0.27 mg/day,
Fluoride retention in infants living in fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas: effects of weaning.
Limited knowledge is available on total fluoride exposure, excretion and retention in infants, despite the first year of human life being the critical period for dental development and risk of dental fluorosis. This study investigated total daily fluoride intake (TDFI), excretion (TDFE) and retention (TDFR) in infants living in fluoridated
Fluoride metabolism in man
Fluoride balances were measured in man under strictly controlled dietary conditions before and during the intake of sodium fluoride, and after its discontinuation. Fluoride intake averaged 4.4 mg/day in the control period and 13.8 mg during the addition of an average of 21 mg sodium fluoride/day. The main pathway of
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