Complete fluoride intake data from the 2000-2003 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey were used to examine questions outstanding from the Fluoridation of Water Supplies review process. In a quarter of the population, fluoride consumption from all sources exceeds the Safe Intake defined by the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy, regardless of water fluoride concentration. In areas supplied with fully fluoridated water, fluoride intake exceeds the recommended safe maximum in nearly two thirds of consumers. The implications are discussed and recommendations are made.
The safe exposure level to fluoride in pregnancy.
Three studies have now examined the safe exposure level to fluoride in pregnancy using benchmark dose analysis. In 2016, Hirzy et al. found that, for a benchmark response (BMR) of 1 IQ point, the lower confidence limit of the benchmark dose (BMDL) was a daily intake of approximately 0.27 mg/day,
Fluoride balance in infants and young children in the UK and its clinical relevance for the dental team.
Key Points Provides an overview of the main sources of fluoride in children. Stresses the proportion of fluoride (F) intake from ingestion of toothpaste. Draws attention to the implications for oral health of the F balance in infants and young children. Illustrates the importance of assessing fluoride exposure at an
Biomarkers for the Assessment of Fluoride Exposure in Children.
Due to practical difficulties in quantifying fluoride exposure, the ability of various biomarkers to predict exposure has been investigated previously. However, the results are inadequate for validation of their application and usefulness. This study aimed to investigate the association between contemporary/recent biomarkers of fluoride exposure and total daily fluoride intake
Fluoride retention in infants living in fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas: effects of weaning.
Limited knowledge is available on total fluoride exposure, excretion and retention in infants, despite the first year of human life being the critical period for dental development and risk of dental fluorosis. This study investigated total daily fluoride intake (TDFI), excretion (TDFE) and retention (TDFR) in infants living in fluoridated
Urinary minerals excretion among primary schoolchildren in Dubai—United Arab Emirates.
Introduction Urinary excretion of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), iodine and fluoride is used to assess their statuses and/or the existence of metabolic abnormalities. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the urinary concentration of these minerals among children have not been documented. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study, including 593 subjects (232
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