Fluoride Action Network


Fluoride activation of the cGMP cascade of vision requires the presence of aluminum, and is shown to be mediated by the binding of one A1F-4 to the GDP/GTP-binding subunit of transducin. The presence of GDP in the site is required: A1F-4 is ineffective when the site is empty or when GDP beta S is substituted for GDP. This sensitivity to the sulfur of GDP beta S suggests that A1F-4 is in contact with the GDP. Striking structural similarities between A1F-4 and PO3-4 lead us to propose that A1F-4 mimics the role of the gamma-phosphate of GTP.