Fluoride Action Network


Nettle, Urtica dioica L., is frequently used by humans for medicinal purposes and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective properties. As no data were available on the effect of nettle extract on the synthesis of pro-inflammatory agents in hepatocytes treated with fluoride, we decided to investigate this. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of nettle fruit clusters were prepared, after lyophilisation and homogenisation, and added to hepatocytes from HepG2 cell line, with and without NaF. After incubation, the concentrations of the pro-inflammatory end products of 15-LOX activity in hepatocytes (15-HETE, 12-HETE, 9-HODE, and 13-HODE) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and apoptosis, necrosis, and mitochondrial superoxide generation were measured using immunohistochemical methods. Adding NaF increased the 15-LOX proinflammatory end products and these effects were decreased by both the ethanol and aqueous nettle extracts. Similarly, the ethanol extracts reduced the increased apoptosis, necrosis, and mitochondrial superoxide synthesis caused by NaF suggesting that nettle extracts may have hepatoprotective properties in fluoride intoxication