Fluoride concentrations in UK tea, including the leading supermarket economy labelled products, were determined. Fluoride ranged from 93 to 820 mg/kg in the products and 0.43 to 8.85 mg/L in the infusions. The UK supermarket economy teas contained elevated fluoride, ranging from 3.60 to 7.96 mg/L in a 2 minute brewing infusion, comparable to Chinese brick tea, indicating the use of mature leaves in their manufacture. Considering the dietary reference intake (DRI) of 4 mg/day of fluoride for an adult consuming 1 L of tea, prepared from an economy tea, containing 6.0 mg/L fluoride, 75–120% of the DRI fluoride is available for absorption by the human system in the presence of food, increasing to 150% when fasting. Excess fluoride in the diet can lead to detrimental health effects such as fluorosis of the teeth and skeletal fluorosis and consuming economy branded tea will lead to exposure.
• Fluoride concentrations were determined in UK tea infusions and products.
• UK economy tea contained elevated fluoride, comparable to Chinese brick tea.
• Fluoride concentration significantly varies depending upon the type of tea.
• We report a risk of high exposure to fluoride if consuming 1L/day of Economy tea.
• Tea consumption alone can exceed the dietary reference intake of fluoride.
Distribution and Removal of Fluoride Ions in the Drinking Waters in the Algerian South (Ouargla as a Showcase)
In certain countries, the Algerian South in particular, where the scarcity of drinking water resources of good quality has constrained the local populations to consume the underground waters that are rich in fluoride. Fluoride constitutes an essential component for the human body in moderate rates, between 0.5 to 1.5 mg/l of
Estimated dietary fluoride intake for New Zealanders.
OBJECTIVES: Existing fluoride concentration and consumption data were used to estimate fluoride intakes from the diet and toothpaste use, for New Zealand subpopulations, to identify any population groups at risk of high-fluoride intake. METHODS: For each sub-population, two separate dietary intake estimates were made--one based on a non-fluoridated water supply (fluoride
Assessment of fluoride concentration and daily intake by human from tea and herbal infusions.
The fluoride content in infusions of commercially available black, green, oolong, pu-erh and white teas was determined by ion-selective electrode. Herbal infusions as well as instant tea and ready-to-drink tea beverages were also examined. It is found that brewing time (5, 10 and 30 min) does increase the fluoride content,
Fluoride contents in tea and soil from tea plantations and the release of fluoride into tea liquor during infusion.
Tea Camellia sinensis (L.), a perennial shrub, is cultivated in acidic soils. It has been noted that the occurrence of fluorosis in some inhabitants of pastoral and semiagricultural, semipastoral areas of Sichuan Province, People’s Republic of China, is due to drinking a large quantity of tea liquor made from brick
Estimation of daily fluoride intake of infants using the microdiffusion method.
Background/Purpose: The standard of daily fluoride intake (DFI) has been discussed mainly for adults since 1950s in Japan. Although dietary habits have changed significantly in recent years, there have been no further studies on DFI in the past 10 years, and the need for further review has been discussed. Additionally,
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Tea Intake Is a Risk Factor for Skeletal Fluorosis
A number of recent studies have found that heavy tea drinkers can develop skeletal fluorosis - a bone disease caused by excessive intake of fluoride.
Skeletal Fluorosis in the U.S.
Although there has been a notable absence of systematic studies on skeletal fluorosis in the U.S., the available evidence indicates that the consumption of artificially fluoridated water is likely to cause skeletal fluorosis and other forms of bone disease in people with kidney disease and other vulnerable populations.
Exposure Pathways Linked to Skeletal Fluorosis
Excessive fluoride exposure from any source -- and from all sources combined -- can cause skeletal fluorosis. Some exposure pathways , however, have been specifically identified as placing individuals at risk of skeletal fluorosis. These exposure pathways include: Fluoridated Water for Kidney Patients Excessive Tea Consumption High-Fluoride Well Water Industrial Fluoride Exposure Fluorinated Pharmaceuticals (Voriconazole
Fluoride content in tea and its relationship with tea quality.
J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Jul 14;52(14):4472-6. Fluoride content in tea and its relationship with tea quality. Lu Y, Guo WF, Yang XQ. Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, 268 Kaixuan Road, Hangzhou 310027, People's Republic of China. Abstract: The tea plant is known as a fluorine accumulator. Fluoride (F) content in fresh leaves collected
Fluoride Content of Tea
Tea, particularly tea drinks made with lower quality older leaves, contain high levels of fluoride. Because of these high levels, research has found that individuals who drink large amounts of tea can develop skeletal fluorosis -- a painful bone disease caused by excessive fluoride intake. Since skeletal fluorosis is often misdiagnosed by
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