Fluoride concentrations in UK tea, including the leading supermarket economy labelled products, were determined. Fluoride ranged from 93 to 820 mg/kg in the products and 0.43 to 8.85 mg/L in the infusions. The UK supermarket economy teas contained elevated fluoride, ranging from 3.60 to 7.96 mg/L in a 2 minute brewing infusion, comparable to Chinese brick tea, indicating the use of mature leaves in their manufacture. Considering the dietary reference intake (DRI) of 4 mg/day of fluoride for an adult consuming 1 L of tea, prepared from an economy tea, containing 6.0 mg/L fluoride, 75–120% of the DRI fluoride is available for absorption by the human system in the presence of food, increasing to 150% when fasting. Excess fluoride in the diet can lead to detrimental health effects such as fluorosis of the teeth and skeletal fluorosis and consuming economy branded tea will lead to exposure.
• Fluoride concentrations were determined in UK tea infusions and products.
• UK economy tea contained elevated fluoride, comparable to Chinese brick tea.
• Fluoride concentration significantly varies depending upon the type of tea.
• We report a risk of high exposure to fluoride if consuming 1L/day of Economy tea.
• Tea consumption alone can exceed the dietary reference intake of fluoride.
Fluoride in tea from Shandong Province, China and exposure assessment.
In this study fluoride in 170 tea samples from Shandong province (China) was determined using a selective ion electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 31.2 to 338 mg/kg with an average of 119 mg/kg. The mean fluoride concentrations were 164, 121, 98.7 and 96.8 mg/kg, which corresponded to Pu'erh tea,
Distribution and Removal of Fluoride Ions in the Drinking Waters in the Algerian South (Ouargla as a Showcase)
In certain countries, the Algerian South in particular, where the scarcity of drinking water resources of good quality has constrained the local populations to consume the underground waters that are rich in fluoride. Fluoride constitutes an essential component for the human body in moderate rates, between 0.5 to 1.5 mg/l of
Estimated dietary fluoride intake for New Zealanders.
OBJECTIVES: Existing fluoride concentration and consumption data were used to estimate fluoride intakes from the diet and toothpaste use, for New Zealand subpopulations, to identify any population groups at risk of high-fluoride intake. METHODS: For each sub-population, two separate dietary intake estimates were made--one based on a non-fluoridated water supply (fluoride
Assessment of fluoride concentration and daily intake by human from tea and herbal infusions.
The fluoride content in infusions of commercially available black, green, oolong, pu-erh and white teas was determined by ion-selective electrode. Herbal infusions as well as instant tea and ready-to-drink tea beverages were also examined. It is found that brewing time (5, 10 and 30 min) does increase the fluoride content,
Predictors of Plasma Fluoride Concentrations in Children and Adolescents.
Despite increasing concerns about neurotoxicity of fluoride in children, sources of fluoride exposure apart from municipal water fluoridation are poorly understood. We aimed to describe the associations of demographics, drinking water characteristics, diet, and oral health behaviors with plasma fluoride concentrations in U.S. children. We used data from 3928 6–19-year-olds
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Skeletal Fluorosis in the U.S.
Although there has been a notable absence of systematic studies on skeletal fluorosis in the U.S., the available evidence indicates that the consumption of artificially fluoridated water is likely to cause skeletal fluorosis and other forms of bone disease in people with kidney disease and other vulnerable populations.
The Lancet: Fluoride Studies in a Patient with Arthritis
It is possible that fluoride intake from tea may be sufficient to cause fluorosis, and I report here a case which gives some evidence for this.
Fluoride content in tea and its relationship with tea quality.
J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Jul 14;52(14):4472-6. Fluoride content in tea and its relationship with tea quality. Lu Y, Guo WF, Yang XQ. Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, 268 Kaixuan Road, Hangzhou 310027, People's Republic of China. Abstract: The tea plant is known as a fluorine accumulator. Fluoride (F) content in fresh leaves collected
Exposure Pathways Linked to Skeletal Fluorosis
Excessive fluoride exposure from any source -- and from all sources combined -- can cause skeletal fluorosis. Some exposure pathways , however, have been specifically identified as placing individuals at risk of skeletal fluorosis. These exposure pathways include: Fluoridated Water for Kidney Patients Excessive Tea Consumption High-Fluoride Well Water Industrial Fluoride Exposure Fluorinated Pharmaceuticals (Voriconazole
Estimated "Threshold" Doses for Skeletal Fluorosis
For over 40 years health authorities stated that in order to develop crippling skeletal fluorosis, one would need to ingest between 20 and 80 mg of fluoride per day for at least 10 or 20 years. This belief, however, which played an instrumental role in shaping current fluoride policies, is now acknowledged by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and other US health authorities to be incorrect.
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