Fluoride Action Network

AIMS:  The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Emblica officinalis against fluoride-induced alterations in the behavioral and biochemical abnormalities in rats.

DESIGN:  The healthy adult albino rats of Wistar strain (Rattus norvegicus) weighed 200-250 g were used for experiments. The animals were divided into three groups. Group I, control rats received only drinking water (F 0.9 ppm). Group II rats were exposed to fluoride (10 ppm) water for 60 days. Group III rats were treated with E. officinalis (100 mg/day/rat) along with fluoride water for 60 days. In order to investigate the effects of elevated levels of fluoride (10 ppm) in drinking water on behavioral pattern of rat, a maze test was carried out in all three groups from day 1 till completion of treatment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:  The animals were weighed before and after treatment. After respective treatment, the animals were autopsied. The blood was collected through cardiac puncture and brain was excised blotted free of blood weighed and used for biochemical parameters. The estimation of protein, enzyme activity of cholinesterase (ChE), and lipid peroxidation were carried out in brain using standard techniques.

RESULTS:  The tissue (brain) and serum fluoride was estimated by a fluoride-specific electrode (Orion). Learning and memory abilities assessed during maze test showed reduced memory retention in rats exposed to fluoride water in comparison to control whereas amla powder (E. officinalis) fed rats showed increased memory retention than fluoride water exposed rats. The protein content and ChE enzyme activity in brain of fluoride exposed rats diminished as compared to control whereas the same was found to be elevated in E. officinalis fed rats. The level of malanoaldehyde showed a significant increase in fluoride-treated group and decrease in E. officinalis treated group.

CONCLUSIONS:  Our results suggest that exposure of rats to Na-F has detrimental effects on the brain as reflected in diminished learning and memory. Administration of E. officinalis during fluoride exposure significantly overcome neuronal fluoride toxicity and, therefore, may be used as a therapeutic agent for fluorotic victims.