Fluoride Action Network


This study aims to clarify the molecular mechanism of fluorine exposure that leads to nerve injury. PC12 cells were treated with fluorine at different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mM). Cytoactivity was detected at different time points (2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h). After 2 h, DCF was used to detect and mark the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within cells. After 24 h, cellular metamorphosis was observed using an inverted microscope. After 2 h, Hoechst-33342 was used to detect apoptosis. After 24 h, Western blot analysis was performed to detect apoptosis-related poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein, p-elF, and expression of the endoplasmic reticulum stress-related X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1). The results showed that Fluorine exposure resulted in a reduction of cell viability, which was negatively correlated with fluorine dose. Within certain fluorine exposure duration, the ROS level within the cell and the apoptotic level are linearly related to fluorine exposure level. XBP-1 and PARP protein are sensitive to variations in fluorine concentration, which indicates that oxidative stress from fluorine exposure can lead to apoptosis. XBP-1 and PARP may be the key proteins during the entire process. These results provide a valid basis for fluorine-induced free radical injury theory.