Although community water fluoridtion (CWF) results in a range of potential contaminant exposures, little attention has been given to many of the possible impacts. A central argument for CWF is its cost-effectiveness. The U.S. Government states that $1 spent on CWF saves $38 in dental treatment costs.
To examine the reported cost-effectiveness of CWF.
Methods and underlying data from the primary U.S. economic evaluation of CWF are analyzed and corrected calculations are described. Other recent economic evaluations are also examined.
Recent economic evaluations of CWF contain defective estimations of both costs and benefits. Incorrect handling of dental treatment costs and flawed estimates of effectiveness lead to overestimated benefits. The real-world costs to water treatment plants and communities are not reflected.
Minimal correction reduced the savings to $3 per person per year (PPPY) for a best-case scenario, but this savings is eliminated by the estimated cost of treating dental fluorosis.
Using urinary fluoride and dental fluorosis as biomarkers of fluoride exposure in brick kiln workers in Balochistan, Pakistan.
A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the level of urinary fluoride and dental fluorosis in brick kiln workers (n=100) and a control group (n=20) in Balochistan, Pakistan. The fluoride level was also assessed in groundwater samples(n=30). The results showed the urinary fluoride level was significantly greater (p<0.05)in the brick
[The safe threshold vallues of fluorine content in supply water by regressive analysis].
This paper deal in the regressive analysis on the basis of fluorine content of supply water and morbidity of enamel fluorosis. The morbidity sharp increased with increase of the fluorine content in the range of 0.4-1.0 mg/l. Furthermore, the relationship between the prevalence rate of skeletal fluorosis and the [fluorine]
Human health risk assessment: Study of a population exposed to fluoride through groundwater of Agra city, India.
Highlights A total of 64% samples exceeded the standard limit of fluoride set by World Health Organization/Bureau of Indian Standards. The estimated exposure doses (EDs) were 0.69, 0.31 and 0.12 mg/kg/day for infants, children, and adults, respectively. The HQ was more than 1 for infants and children at all sites
COL1A2 gene polymorphisms (Pvu II and Rsa I), serum calciotropic hormone levels, and dental fluorosis.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between dental fluorosis, polymorphisms in the COL1A2 gene, and serum calciotropic hormone levels. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study among children between 8 and 12 years of age with (n = 75) and without (n = 165) dental fluorosis in two counties in Henan Province, China.
Fluoride content of groundwater and prevalence of dental, skeletal and neurological stage of fluorosis in Tehsil Purwa of Unnao.
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[caption id="attachment_8879" align="aligncenter" width="550"] Severe fluorosis - Photograph by David Kennedy, DDS[/caption] In its severe forms, dental fluorosis causes highly disfiguring brown and black staining of the teeth, which can cause chronic embarrassment and social anxiety for the impacted child. In 1984, a panel from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) warned
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