Although community water fluoridtion (CWF) results in a range of potential contaminant exposures, little attention has been given to many of the possible impacts. A central argument for CWF is its cost-effectiveness. The U.S. Government states that $1 spent on CWF saves $38 in dental treatment costs.
To examine the reported cost-effectiveness of CWF.
Methods and underlying data from the primary U.S. economic evaluation of CWF are analyzed and corrected calculations are described. Other recent economic evaluations are also examined.
Recent economic evaluations of CWF contain defective estimations of both costs and benefits. Incorrect handling of dental treatment costs and flawed estimates of effectiveness lead to overestimated benefits. The real-world costs to water treatment plants and communities are not reflected.
Minimal correction reduced the savings to $3 per person per year (PPPY) for a best-case scenario, but this savings is eliminated by the estimated cost of treating dental fluorosis.
Changes in the fluoride-induced modulation of maturation stage ameloblasts of rats.
The maturation stage of enamel development is characterized by a cyclic modulation of the ameloblasts between bands of smooth-ended cells and longer bands of ruffle-ended cells. There are cyclic patterns of calcein staining of and 45Ca uptake in the enamel associated with this cellular modulation. Rats were given 0, 75,
Enamel fluorosis related to plasma F levels in the rat.
The purpose of this long-term study was to investigate disturbances in enamel mineralization associated with low, but relatively constant, plasma fluoride levels produced by constant infusion or with fluctuating plasma fluoride levels caused by drinking fluoridated water. Weanling rats were raised for 8 weeks on low-fluoride food and water containing
Dental fluorosis and caries prevalence in the fluorosis endemic area of Asembagus, Indonesia
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and caries in a fluorosis endemic area, with fluoride content in drinking water ranging from 0.51 to 3.15 ppm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children (n = 474), aged 6-12 years, were randomly selected from one primary
Prevalence of dental fluorosis in fluoridated and nonfluoridated communities--a preliminary investigation
As a result of undocumented observations that the prevalence of dental fluorosis in both fluoridated and nonfluoridated communities may be higher than would be predicted on the basis of Dean's data from the 1940s, dental fluorosis assessments using a modification of Dean's Index were made in 1981 as part of
Dental caries and dental fluorosis at varying water fluoride concentrations
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between caries experience and dental fluorosis at different fluoride concentrations in drinking water. The impact of other fluoride products also was assessed. METHODS: This study used data from the 1986-87 National Survey of US School-children. Fluoride levels of school water
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Dental Fluorosis Impacts Dentin in Addition to Enamel
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Community Fluorosis Index (CFI)
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Severe Dental Fluorosis: Perception and Psychological Impact
[caption id="attachment_8879" align="aligncenter" width="550"] Severe fluorosis - Photograph by David Kennedy, DDS[/caption] In its severe forms, dental fluorosis causes highly disfiguring brown and black staining of the teeth, which can cause chronic embarrassment and social anxiety for the impacted child. In 1984, a panel from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) warned
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When it comes to how fluoride impacts human health, no tissue in the body has been studied more than the teeth. Yet, despite over 50 years of research, the mechanism by which fluoride causes dental fluorosis (a hypo-mineralization of the enamel that results in significant staining of the teeth) is not
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