Fluoride Action Network


The study demonstrates the effects of chronic sub-lethal exposure of sodium fluoride (NaF) on reproductive structure and function of female Drosophila melanogaster. As a part of treatment, flies were maintained in food supplemented with sub-lethal concentrations of NaF (10-100 ?g/mL). Fecundity, ovarian morphology, presence and profusion of viable cells from ovary and fat body were taken into consideration for evaluating changes in reproductive homeostasis. Wing length (a factor demonstrating body size and reproductive fitness) was also monitored after NaF exposure. Significant reduction in fecundity, alteration in ovarian morphology along with an increase in apoptosis was observed in treated females. Simultaneous decline in viable cell number and larval weight validates the result of MTT assay. Furthermore, altered ovarian Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase activities together with increased rate of lipid peroxidation after 20 and 40 ?g/mL NaF exposure confirmed the changes in reproduction related metabolism. Enhanced lipid peroxidation known for ROS generation might have induced genotoxicity which is confirmed through Comet assay. The enzyme activities were not dose dependent, rather manifested a bimodal response, which suggests a well-knit interaction among the players inducing stress and the ones that help establish physiological homeostasis.