A 2-group randomized field trial was conducted to evaluate the impact of a fluorosis educational preventive program in mother´s knowledge and practices, and on the urine fluoride concentration of their preschool children.
Material and Methods:
A group of 139 mother-child pairs participated in the study. Randomly, children were assigned to an intervention group, their mothers were participants of an educational program, or a control group (CG); including 69 and 70 child-mother pairs, respectively, the follow-up period was six months. Mother´s knowledge and practices were evaluated and children´s first urine sample was used to measure fluoride concentration at the beginning of the study and at the end of the follow-up period.
The mean age of the children was 4.18 (sd 0.62) years-old at baseline. Mothers in the IG improved their knowledge and practices associated with fluorosis risk factors. Adequate knowledge about the amount of toothpaste to use for brushing improved in the IG (p=0.006). In 82.1% of the children in the IG showed decrease in urine fluoride concentration was observed (p< 0.001), no significant differences were shown in the CG.
Mothers participating in an education program improved their knowledge and practices, reducing the risk of dental fluorosis in their children who showed a decreased on their urine F concentration.
Urinary minerals excretion among primary schoolchildren in Dubai—United Arab Emirates.
Introduction Urinary excretion of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), iodine and fluoride is used to assess their statuses and/or the existence of metabolic abnormalities. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the urinary concentration of these minerals among children have not been documented. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study, including 593 subjects (232
Assessing Fluorosis Incidence in Areas with Low Fluoride Content in the Drinking Water, Fluorotic Enamel Architecture, and Composition Alterations.
There is currently no consensus among researchers on the optimal level of fluoride for human growth and health. As drinking water is not the sole source of fluoride for humans, and fluoride can be found in many food sources, this work aimed to determine the incidence and severity of dental
Fluoride intake and urinary excretion in 6- to 7-year-old children living in optimally, sub-optimally and non-fluoridated areas.
Objectives: This study was designed to measure total intake, urinary excretion and estimated retention of fluoride in children under customary fluoride intake conditions, living in either fluoridated or low-fluoride areas of north-east England. Subsidiary aims were to investigate the relationships between the variables measured. Methods: Using a
Fluoride exposure from groundwater as reflected by urinary fluoride and children's dental fluorosis in the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley.
This cross-sectional study explores the relationships between children's F(-) exposure from drinking groundwater and urinary F(-) concentrations, combined with dental fluorosis (DF) in the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) Valley. We examined the DF prevalence and severity among 491 children (10 to 15 years old) who are life-long residents of 33
Environmental Fluoride 1977 by Rose & Marier
The Associate Committee on Scientific Criteria for Environmental Quality was established by the National Research Council of Canada in response to a mandate provided by the Federal Government to develop scientific guidelines for defining the quality of the environment. The concern of the NRC Associate Committee is strictly with scientific
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Nutrient Deficiencies Enhance Fluoride Toxicity
It has been known since the 1930s that poor nutrition enhances the toxicity of fluoride. As discussed below, nutrient deficiencies have been specifically linked to increased susceptibility to fluoride-induced tooth damage (dental fluorosis), bone damage (osteomalacia), neurotoxicity (reduced intelligence), and mutagenicity. The nutrients of primary importance appear to be calcium,
Dental Fluorosis: The "Cosmetic" Factor
Any condition that can cause children to be embarrassed about their physical appearance can have significant consequences on their self-esteem and confidence. Researchers have repeatedly found that "physical appearance [is] the best predictor of self-esteem" in adolescents, (Harter 2000) and that facial attractiveness, particularly the appearance of one's teeth, is a
Diagnostic Criteria for Dental Fluorosis: The Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) Index
The traditional criteria (the "Dean Index") for diagnosing dental fluorosis was developed in the first half of the 20th century by H. Trendley Dean. While the Dean Index is still widely used in surveys of fluorosis -- including the CDC's national surveys of fluorosis in the United States -- dental
Mechanisms by Which Fluoride Causes Dental Fluorosis Remain Unknown
When it comes to how fluoride impacts human health, no tissue in the body has been studied more than the teeth. Yet, despite over 50 years of research, the mechanism by which fluoride causes dental fluorosis (a hypo-mineralization of the enamel that results in significant staining of the teeth) is not
Moderate/Severe Dental Fluorosis
In its "moderate" and severe forms, fluoride causes a marked increase in the porosity of the enamel. After eruption into mouth, the porous enamel of moderate to severe fluorosis readily takes up stain, creating permanent brown and black discolorations of the teeth. In addition to extensive staining, teeth with moderate to severe fluorosis are more prone to attrition and wear - leading to pitting, chipping, and decay.
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