Fluoride Action Network



To provide a comprehensive report of fluoride concentration in UK infant milks and estimate their contribution to daily fluoride intake.


A total of 60 formula milk products available commercially or within a hospital environment were analysed, along with eight pasteurised cow’s milk samples. Formula milk products requiring preparation were reconstituted with fresh Leeds tap water (0.02 ppmF). Fluoride concentration was measured for all products directly using an ion selective electrode after addition of low-level total ionic strength adjustment buffer.


The overall median fluoride concentration for the 68 infant milks was 0.025 ppmF, with a wide range of 0.002-0.282 ppmF. Analysis revealed variation between composition and manufacturer, in addition to differences between measured and labeled fluoride concentration. Although all products contained low fluoride concentration, the fluoride concentrations for formula milks used within the hospital setting (0.029 ppmF) were statistically higher in comparison to the commercial formula milk (0.016 ppmF) and cow’s milk (0.017 ppmF) products. The daily fluoride contribution from infant milks was low; 0.0034 mgF/kg body weight per day was estimated between birth and 6 months of age, further decreasing as intake of infant milk decreased with age.


Fluoride concentration of the analysed infant milks is low, providing minimal contribution towards total daily F intake and alone are unlikely to pose a threat for the development of dental fluorosis.