- Fluoride causes histopathological changes in C2C12 cells.
- Fluoride exposure damages ultrastructure in C2C12 cells.
- Fluoride exposure induces apoptosis in C2C12 cells.
- PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is involved in fluoride-induced apoptosis in C2C12 cells.
To investigate the mechanisms of fluoride-induced apoptosis, a fluoride-induced C2C12 skeletal muscle cell (C2C12 cell) model was established in this study, and the viability of the C2C12 cells was measured using an MTT assay. Cell morphological changes were observed via haematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy. Apoptosis was monitored through Hoechst staining. The mRNA and protein expression of PI3K, PDK1, AKT1, BAD, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-9 were detected through real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The results showed that the survival rates of C2C12 cells decreased gradually with an increasing fluoride doses. The C2C12 cell structure was seriously damaged by fluoride, presenting with pyknosis, mitochondrial ridge disruption and swollen endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, the expression of mRNA in PI3K, BAD, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-9 were significantly increased in the fluoride group (P <0.01), while the expression of PDK1 was markedly decreased (P <0.01). The expression of protein in BAD, Bcl-2 and Bax were significantly increased in the fluoride group (P <0.01), while the expression of PDK1 and P-AKT1 was markedly decreased (P <0.01). In conclusion, fluoride-induced apoptosis in C2C12 cells is related to the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
[Excessive fluoride inducing calcium overload and apoptosis of ameloblasts].
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of excessive fluoride on calcium overload and apoptosis in cultured rat ameloblasts in vitro. METHODS: Logarithmic-phase ameloblasts (HAT-7) were treated with 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, and 6.4 mmol · L(-1) sodium fluoride (NaF) solution. Cell activities were detected by using a Cell Counting Kit
Fluoride-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis are involved in the reducing of oocytes development potential in mice.
The present study was conducted to investigate the mechanisms of excessive-fluoride-induced reduction of oocyte development potential in mice. The development morphology of oocyte and the changes of pathomorphology in ovary were observed. The protein expression levels of apoptosis factors, including Bax, Bcl-2, casepase-3, casepase-9 and cytochrome c, and the mRNA
Induction of apoptosis by sodium fluorosilicate treatment in human osteogenic sarcoma (HOS) cells.
Fluorine compounds are widely used for the prevention of caries, and recently sodium fluorosilicate has been used in water fluorination. The cytotoxic effects of sodium fluorosilicate in several osteosarcoma and oral cancer cells were evaluated in this study by measurement of inhibition of cell proliferation. Human osteogenic sarcoma (HOS) cells
Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes by altering mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular ROS level
Chronic excessive fluoride intake is known to be toxic, and effects of long-term fluorosis on different organ systems have been examined. However, there are few studies about the effects of fluorosis on cardiovascular systems. Here, we studied the fluoride-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells and determined the underlying molecular mechanisms including
Protective effect of lycopene on fluoride-induced ameloblasts apoptosis and dental fluorosis through oxidative stress-mediated Caspase pathways
Fluoride is an environmental toxicant and induces dental fluorosis and oxidative stress. Lycopene (LYC) is an effective antioxidant that is reported to attenuate fluoride toxicity. To determine the effects of LYC on sodium fluoride (NaF) -induced teeth and ameloblasts toxicity, rats were treated with NaF (10 mg/kg) and/or LYC (10 mg/kg) by
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