Fluoride Action Network


In this study, experimental pathology, flow cytometry (FCM), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and western blot (WB) were used to evaluate the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) on hepatocellular cell cycle progression in mice. A total of 240 ICR mice were divided equally into four groups; the experimental groups received 12, 24, or 48 mg/kg NaF intragastrically for 42 days, while the control group received distilled water. Doses of NaF above 12 mg/kg increased the percentage of cells in S phase (S-phase arrest), reduced percentages of cells in G0/G1 or G2/M phase, and activated the ATM-p53-p21 and ATR-Chk1-Cdc25A pathways. Activation of these pathways was characterized by up-regulation of ATM, p53, p21, ATR, and Chk1 mRNA and protein expression, and down-regulation of Cdc25A, cyclin E, cyclin A, CDK2, CDK4, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) mRNA and protein expression. These results indicate that NaF caused S-phase arrest by activating the ATM-p53-p21 and ATR-Chk1-Cdc25A pathways.