Background: The aim of the present work is to find the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and/or thymoquinone (THQ) in the protection against acute renal injury induced by sodium fluoride (NaF).
Method: Rats were distributed into five groups: G1 was normal (control), G2 was intoxicated with 10mg/kg NaF i.p., G3 was treated with 10mg THQ /kg, G4 was treated with 20mg NAC /kg, and G5 was treated with a combination of THQ and NAC. The previous treatments were given daily along with NaF for four weeks orally.
Result: Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in serum urea, creatinine, uric acid, renal lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and TNF-? levels, whereas the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. The expressions of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), Lipocalin, vascular adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1), and BAX proteins were upregulated, whereas Bcl-2 and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) proteins expressions were downregulated. DNA fragmentation was also amplified. Histological analysis revealed that NaF caused a destructive renal cortex in the form of the glomerular corpuscle, the obliterated proximal and distal convoluted tubules, vacuolization in tubular cells focal necrosis, and cell infiltration. THQ and NAC supplementation counteracted NaF-induced nephrotoxicity as reflected by the increase in renal GSH and SOD. THQ and NAC ameliorated all the altered proteins expressions, improved renal architecture, and declined DNA fragmentation.
Conclusion: The role of oxidative stress in the enhancement of NaF toxicity suggested the renoprotective effects of NAC and THQ against the toxicity of fluoride via multiple mechanisms.