- We studied the toxic effects of different concentrations of NaF in H9c2 cells.
- NaF inhibited H9c2 cell proliferation and induced early apoptosis.
- Mitochondrial membrane potential decreased with increase in NaF.
- Caspase-3, caspase-9, and cytochrome c mRNA levels increased with increase in NaF.
- Fluoride induces apoptosis via activation of the mitochondrial pathway.
Numerous studies have shown that chronic excessive fluoride intake can adversely affect different organ systems. In particular, the cardiovascular system is susceptible to disruption by a high concentration of fluoride. The objectives of this study were to explore the mechanism of apoptosis by detecting the toxic effects of different concentrations of sodium fluoride (NaF) in H9c2 cells exposed for up to 96 h. NaF not only inhibited H9c2 cell proliferation but also induced apoptosis and morphological damage. With increasing NaF concentrations, early apoptosis of H9c2 cells was increased while the mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased. Compared with the control group, the mRNA levels of caspase-3, caspase-9, and cytochrome c all increased with increasing concentrations of NaF. In summary, these data suggest that apoptosis is involved in NaF-induced H9c2 cell toxicity and that activation of the mitochondrial pathway may occur.
The mitochondrial pathway is involved in sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced renal apoptosis in mice.
The objective of the present study was to explore the molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by sodium fluoride (NaF) in the mouse kidney by using the methods of flow cytometry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blotting, and experimental pathology. 240 four-week-old ICR mice were randomly divided into 4
Fluoride induced tissue hypercalcemia, IL-17 mediated inflammation and apoptosis lead to cardiomyopathy: ultrastructural and biochemical findings.
An increased prevalence of cardiac complications has been observed in residents of fluorosis endemic areas chronically exposed to fluoride. Fluoride induces soft tissue injury due to oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and mitochondriopathy. It was hypothesized that chronic fluoride exposure induces apoptosis in cardiomyocytes due to inflammation, lysis of extra
Effect of sodium fluoride on the sperm mitochondrial DNA in mice.
Previous studies demonstrated that fluoride, as a widespread environmental pollutant, induced the reproductive toxicity at high dose. Besides the decrease of sperm characteristics like concentration, survival, and sperm motility, it was found that high fluoride induced the destructive mitochondrial ultrastructure and decreased ATP production from mitochondrial respiration. However, whether fluoride
Low-to-moderate fluoride exposure, relative mitochondrial DNA levels, and dental fluorosis in Chinese children.
Highlights Circulating mtDNA content is negatively related to low-to-moderate fluoride exposure. Dental fluorosis (DF) prevalence is positively related to fluoride exposure. Circulating mtDNA content is negatively associated with the DF prevalence. Gender modifies the associations of DF prevalence with mtDNA and fluoride exposure. mtDNA content partly mediates association of
Chronic fluoride toxicity and myocardial damage: antioxidant offered protection in second generation rats
This experiment was designed to investigate the extent of peroxidative changes and histological alterations in the myocardium of rats exposed to high fluoride for two generations, in addition to ameliorative role of selenium and vitamin E on the above indices. Adult albino Wistar rats were given fluoride through drinking water
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Factors which increase the risk for skeletal fluorosis
The risk for developing skeletal fluorosis, and the course the disease will take, is not solely dependent on the dose of fluoride ingested. Indeed, people exposed to similar doses of fluoride may experience markedly different effects. While the wide range in individual response to fluoride is not yet fully understood, the following are some of the factors that are believed to play a role.
Skeletal Fluorosis & Individual Variability
One of the common fallacies in the research on skeletal fluorosis is the notion that there is a uniform level of fluoride that is safe for everyone in the population. These "safety thresholds" have been expressed in terms of (a) bone fluoride content, (b) daily dose, (c) water fluoride level, (d) urinary fluoride level, and (e) blood fluoride level. The central fallacy with each of these alleged safety thresholds, however, is that they ignore the wide range of individual susceptibility in how people respond to toxic substances, including fluoride.
Fluoridated Water Causes Severe Dental Fluorosis in Children with Diabetes Insipidus
This section on Diabetes includes: • Fluoride & Impaired Glucose Tolerance • Fluoride & Insulin • Fluoride Sensitivity Among Diabetics • Fluoridated Water Causes Severe Dental Fluorosis in Children with Diabetes Insipidus • NRC (2006): Fluoride’s Effect on Glucose Metabolism Excessive exposure to fluoride causes a defect of the tooth enamel known as dental fluorosis. In
Fluoridation, Dialysis & Osteomalacia
In the 1960s and 1970s, doctors discovered that patients receiving kidney dialysis were accumulating very high levels of fluoride in their bones and blood, and that this exposure was associated with severe forms of osteomalacia, a bone-softening disease that leads to weak bones and often excruciating bone pain. Based on
Fluoride, Blood Pressure and Hypertension
Individuals with blood pressure readings that exceed 140/90 are considered hypertensive. Hypertension can increase the risk of stroke, heart attack, heart failure, aortic aneurysms, and peripheral arterial disease. An association between increased fluoride in ground water and increased prevalence of hypertension has been observed, especially among adult males (Amini et
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