The levels of fluoride airborne particulates emitted from welding processes were investigated. They were sampled with the patented IOM Sampler, developed by J. H. Vincent and D. Mark at the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM), personal inhalable sampler for simultaneous collection of the inhalable and respirable size fractions. Ion chromatography with conductometric detection was used for quantitative analysis. The efficiency of fluoride extraction from the cellulose filter of the IOM sampler was examined using the standard sample of urban air particle matter SRM-1648a. The best results for extraction were obtained when water and the anionic surfactant N-Cetyl-N–N–N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used in an ultrasonic bath. The limits of detection and quantification for the whole procedure were 8 ?g/L and 24 ?g/L, respectively. The linear range of calibration was 0.01–10 mg/L, which corresponds to 0.0001–0.1 mg of fluorides per m3 in collection of a 20 L air sample. The concentration of fluorides in the respirable fraction of collected air samples was in the range of 0.20–1.82 mg/m3, while the inhalable fraction contained 0.23–1.96 mg/m3 of fluorides during an eight-hour working day in the welding room.
A quantitative look at fluorosis, fluoride exposure, and intake in children using a health risk assessment approach
The prevalence of dental fluorosis in the United States has increased during the last 30 years. In this study, we used a mathematical model commonly employed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to estimate average daily intake offluoride via all applicable exposure pathways contributing to fluorosis risk for infants and children
Systemic fluoride. Sources, amounts, and effects of ingestion
Fluoride may be ingested from a variety of sources, including many foods and beverages. Fluoride intake varies greatly among individuals and is dependent on dietary constituents and use of fluoride products. Although ingestion of toxic amounts of fluoride is rare, the prevalence of dental fluorosis has increased in North America, suggesting that the levels of fluoride ingestion
Assessment of fluoride intake from groundwater and intake reduction from delivering bottled water in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.
Fluoride intake from tap water supplied by fluoride-containing groundwater has been the primary cause of fluorosis among the residents of Buak Khang Subdistrict, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. To reduce fluoride intake, bottled water treated using reverse-osmosis membranes has been made available by community-owned water treatment plants. This study aimed to
Fluoride levels in UK infant milks.
AIM: To provide a comprehensive report of fluoride concentration in UK infant milks and estimate their contribution to daily fluoride intake. METHODS: A total of 60 formula milk products available commercially or within a hospital environment were analysed, along with eight pasteurised cow's milk samples. Formula milk products requiring preparation were reconstituted with
Associations of fluoride intake with children's bone measures at age 11.
BACKGROUND: Relationships between fluoride intake and bone health continue to be of interest, as previous studies show conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: The purpose is to report associations of fluoride intake with bone measures at age 11. METHODS: Subjects have been participating in the ongoing Iowa Fluoride Study/Iowa Bone Development Study. Mothers were recruited
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