The contamination of ground water by fluoride has been reported worldwide. Most fluoride (approximately 70%) is filtered by the kidneys; humans or experimental animals with renal damage therefore may be more affected by fluoride exposure than those with normal kidney function. Tubulointerstitial fibrosis, which involves macrophage-promoted extracellular matrix production and myofibroblast migration, can be induced in rats by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). We examined the effects of fluoride exposure on tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the obstructed kidney of UUO rats. The left ureters of 6-week-old male rats were ligated using silk sutures. Fluoride was then administered for 2 weeks at doses of 0, 75, and 150 ppm in the drinking water. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1) transcription; histological and immunohistochemical staining were used to identify positive areas within the renal cortex and staining-positive cells by image analysis. Significant increases were observed in the obstructed kidneys of UUO rats exposed to 150 ppm fluoride (compared to 0 ppm) for areas or number of cells that stained with Masson trichrome or with antibodies against collagen type I, alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA, a myofibroblast marker), ED1, ED2, and ED3 (macrophage markers), and TGF-?1. Taken together, these observations suggested that fluoride exacerbates tuburointerstitial nephropathy resulting from UUO, and that this effect occurs via activation of the M2 macrophage-TGF-?1-fibroblast/myofibroblast-collagen synthesis pathway.
Renal function in residents of an endemic fluorosis area in southern Algeria
Kidney damage in distal and proximal tubular function and in glomerular filtration occurred in 40-60 yr olds residing in El Qued an endemic fluorosis area in southern Algeria compared to normals from Algiers. Functional renal disturbances were proportional to the degree of fluoride (F-) accumulation which increased in relation to
Human urinary fluoride excretion as influenced by renal functional impairment
The effects of renal function on human renal fluoride (F-) excretion and serum F- concentrations were studied in subjects with normal renal function, in patients with variable degrees of renal insufficiency and in patients undergoing regular hemodialysis treatment. The mechanisms of human renal F- excretion include glomerular filtration and tubular
Maize purple plant pigment protects against fluoride-induced oxidative damage of liver and kidney in rats
Anthocyanins are polyphenols and well known for their biological antioxidative benefits. Maize purple plant pigment (MPPP) extracted and separated from maize purple plant is rich in anthocyanins. In the present study, MPPP was used to alleviate the adverse effects generated by fluoride on liver and kidney in rats. The results
Changes in adrenal function as a possible mechanism for elevation of serum glucose by a single large dose of fluoride.
Serum glucose was elevated immediately after ip administration of a single large dose of fluoride (NaF 35 mg/kg) to rats. Moreover, elevation of serum glucose following ip administration of 35 mg/kg of fluoride to rats was suppressed by adrenalectomy, dibenamine, or propranolol, but not by thyroid-parathyroidectomy. The elevation of serum
High fluoride concentrations in the serum and bone of patients with chronic renal failure
The aim was to study the effect of ingested fluoride in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Serum fluoride concentrations were measured in 104 subjects, who formed three groups: nondialyzed CRF, dialyzed CRF, and a control group. The iliac bone fluoride was measured in 20 subjects. Serum, urine and water
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