Fluoride Action Network


Apoptosis is genetically programmed cell death, an irreversible process of cell senescence with characteristic features different from other cellular mechanisms of death such as necrosis. In the last years, apoptosis has been extensively studied in the scientific literature, because it has been established that apoptosis plays a crucial role following the time course of chronic degenerative diseases, such as cancer. Thus, several researchers have struggled to detect what chemical agents are able to interfere with the apoptotic process. Thus, the purpose of this literature review is to assess if fluoride induces apoptosis in mammalian cells using in vivo and in vitro test systems. Certain mammalian cell types such as oral cells, blood and brain were extensively investigated; the results showed that fluoride is able to induce apoptosis in both intrinsinc and extrinsic pathways. Moreover, other cells types have been poorly investigated such as bone, kidney and reproductive cells with conflicting results so far. Therefore, this area needs further investigation for the safety of human populations exposed to fluoride in a chronic way, as for example in developing countries.