Aluminofluoride complexes (AlF(x)) form spontaneously in aqueous solutions containing fluoride and traces of aluminum ions and appear to act as phosphate analogs. These complexes have become widely utilized in laboratory investigations of various guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Reflecting on many laboratory studies, a new mechanism of fluoride and aluminum action on the cellular level is being suggested. The long-term synergistic effects of these ions in living environment and their hidden danger for human health are not yet fully recognized.
Screening of Human Proteins for Fluoride and Aluminum Binding.
Previous studies showed that prolonged exposure to fluoride (F-) and aluminum (Al3+) ions is associated with numerous diseases including neurological disorders. They don't have any known biological function. But they can bind with proteins that interact with ions similar to them. Such unwanted interactions affect the normal biological function of
Paradoxes of fluoride toxicity
Numerous literature sources reveal evidence that fluoride affects the activities of numerous enzymes in vitro as well as in vivo. Millions of people live in endemic fluoride areas with a severe public health problem. A plethora of data suggest that fluoride should be recognized as a developmental neurotoxicant for humans.
The biochemistry and physiology of metallic fluoride: action, mechanism, and implications
Fluoride is a well-known G protein activator. Activation of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins by fluoride requires trace amounts of Al3+ or Be2+ ions. AlFx mimics a gamma-phosphate at its transition state in a Galpha protein and is therefore able to inhibit its GTPase activity. AlFx also forms complexes with small GTP-binding
Chronic Fluoride Exposure and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder.
The continuous rise of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevalent in the past few decades is causing an increase in public health and socioeconomic concern. A consensus suggests the involvement of both genetic and environmental factors in the ASD etiopathogenesis. Fluoride (F) is rarely recognized among the environmental risk factors of
Protective effect of resveratrol against neuronal damage through oxidative stress in cerebral hemisphere of aluminum and fluoride treated rats.
Aluminum has no defined biological function and it is potentially involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, the presence of fluoride causes more aluminum to accumulate in the brain, resulting in increased neuronal damage. In recent years, resveratrol through its ameliorative effects was found to be a neuroprotectant. This
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