- We measured urinary fluoride in 213 pregnant women living in Mexico City who were part of the ELEMENT pregnancy cohort study.
- Higher concentration of maternal urinary fluoride was associated with more ADHD-like symptoms in school-age children.
- Prenatal exposure to fluoride was most strongly associated with behavioral ratings of inattention, but not hyperactivity and impulse control.
- Findings are consistent with the growing body of evidence suggesting neurotoxicity of early-life exposure to fluoride.
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and animal-based studies have raised concern over the potential impact of fluoride exposure on neurobehavioral development as manifested by lower IQ and deficits in attention. To date, no prospective epidemiologic studies have examined the effects of prenatal fluoride exposure on behavioral outcomes using fluoride biomarkers and sensitive measures of attention.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the association between prenatal fluoride exposure and symptoms associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
METHOD: 213 Mexican mother-children pairs of the Early Life Exposures to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohort study had available maternal urinary samples during pregnancy and child assessments of ADHD-like behaviors at age 6–12. We measured urinary fluoride levels adjusted for creatinine (MUFcr) in spot urine samples collected during pregnancy. The Conners’ Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R) was completed by mothers, and the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test (CPT-II) was administered to the children.
RESULTS: Mean MUFcr was 0.85?mg/L (SD?=?0.33) and the Interquartile Range (IQR) was 0.46?mg/L. In multivariable adjusted models using gamma regression, a 0.5?mg/L higher MUFcr (approximately one IQR higher) corresponded with significantly higher scores on the CRS-R for DSM-IV Inattention (2.84 points, 95% CI: 0.84, 4.84) and DSM-IV ADHD Total Index (2.38 points, 95% CI: 0.42, 4.34), as well as the following symptom scales: Cognitive Problems and Inattention (2.54 points, 95% CI: 0.44, 4.63) and ADHD Index (2.47 points; 95% CI: 0.43, 4.50). The shape of the associations suggested a possible celling effect of the exposure. No significant associations were found with outcomes on the CPT-II or on symptom scales assessing hyperactivity.
CONCLUSION: Higher levels of fluoride exposure during pregnancy were associated with global measures of ADHD and more symptoms of inattention as measured by the CRS-R in the offspring.
Original abstract online at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412018311814
Association of water fluoride and urinary fluoride concentrations with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Canadian youth.
A correction to an error in Table 4 was made. See correction at https://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/41631/ and also below. Highlights UFSG did not significantly predict ADHD diagnosis or ADHD-type symptoms. Higher tap water fluoride was associated with higher odds of an ADHD diagnosis. Higher water fluoride was associated with more ADHD-type symptoms for
Corrigendum to Association of water fluoride and urinary fluoride concentrations with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Canadian youth.
Julia K. Riddell, Ashley J. Malin, David Flora, Hugh McCague, Christine Till Association of water fluoride and urinary fluoride concentrations with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Canadian youth Environment International, Volume 133, Part B, December 2019, Pages 105190 Download PDF Riddell et al. [Environ Int 2019; 133(Pt B): 105190], have reported an error in
Fluoride Exposure and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Among Children in the United States: A pilot study.
Background/Aim: Developmental neurotoxicity of fluoride has been demonstrated in animal studies. Additionally, fluoride exposure during prenatal development, infancy, middle-to-late childhood and adolescence has been associated with poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes among children in Mexico and/or Canada. However, potential impacts of chronic low-level fluoride exposure in early childhood on brain structure and
Fluoride exposure during early adolescence and its association with internalizing symptoms.
Highlights Adolescents with elevated urinary fluoride concentrations exhibit more somatization symptoms. Males may represent an at-risk population for fluoride-related internalizing behaviors. While somatization is typically comorbid with anxiety and depression, fluoride concentrations were not associated with increased depressive or anxiety symptoms. Background Early, chronic, low-level fluoride exposure has been linked to
Effects of high fluoride on neonatal neurobehavioral development.
The effects of excessive fluoride intake during pregnancy on neonatal neurobehavioral development and the neurodevelopment toxicity of fluoride were evaluated. Ninety-one normal neonates delivered at the department of obstetrics and gynecology in five hospitals of Zhaozhou County, Heilongjiang Province, China were randomly selected from December 2002 to January 2003. The subjects were divided into two groups (high
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