Fluoride Action Network



  • MMP2, MMP9 and MMP20 were expressed in the enamel development of the animalmodels.
  • Polymorphisms in MMP2, MMP9 and MMP2 were not associated with dental fluorosis.
  • Afro-descendants had a higher risk of dental fluorosis than caucasian.

Recent studies suggested that genetics contribute to differences in dental fluorosis (DF) susceptibility among individuals having the same environmental exposure. This study evaluated if MMP2, MMP9 and MMP20 are expressed during enamel development and assessed the association between polymorphisms in these genes with DF. Mice susceptible and resistant to DF were used to evaluate if MMPs were candidate genes for DF. The animals received fluoride and their enamels were used for immunohistochemistry. Additionally, 481 subjects from a city with fluoridation of public water supplies were recruited. Genotyping was performed using real time PCR. Allele/genotype frequencies were compared between groups. MMP2, MMP9 and MMP20 immunostaining was detected in both animal groups. DF was observed in 22.4% of the subjects. A borderline association was observed in MMP2 (rs243865), MMP9 (rs17576) and in MMP20 (rs1784418) (p = 0.06, p = 0.08 and p = 0.06 respectively). Briefly, MMPs were expressed during enamel maturation and genetic polymorphisms were not associated with DF.