- High levels of fluoride induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells.
- Fluoride induced cell cycle arrest in the S-phase.
- SIRT1 attenuated fluoride-induced oxidative stress, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
- SIRT1/p53/p21 pathway is involved in the regulation of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
Fluoride is very crucial for development of teeth and bones. Excessive fluoride, however, causes damage to teeth and bones resulting in serious public health problem. SIRT1 regulates physiological and pathological processes such as apoptosis and cell cycle. Although SIRT1 inhibits p53-mediated transactivation, how SIRT1 regulates p53 in fluorosis remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the involvement of SIRT1 in fluoride-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells and the underlying mechanism. Cell apoptosis was determined using Annexin V-FITC/PI dual staining, cell cycle detected with PI staining, intracellular ROS levels measured with DCFH-DA probe, and apoptosis-related protein expressions determined using Western blotting. Results showed that there was a promotion in apoptosis rate, intracellular ROS levels, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, protein expression (Cyt c, Caspase-3, p53, Ac-p53 and p21) and blockage of S phase after cells were exposed to NaF. Afterwards, the influence of SIRT1 on apoptosis was explored after SRT1720 (SIRT1 activator) and Ex-527 (SIRT1 inhibitor) was introduced. Results indicated that SRT1720 in combination with fluoride significantly decreased the intracellular ROS levels, the protein expression of Caspase-3, Ac-p53 and p21 and alleviated apoptosis, while it was reversed by Ex-527. Collectively, SIRT1 plays an essential role in protection against fluoride-induced oxidative stress and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells. The SIRT1/p53/p21 pathway may be a potential therapeutic target for fluorosis