- Fluoride alters the ultrastructure of acrosome and arrests acrosome formation during spermatogenesis.
- Fluoride down-regulates the expressions of ZPBP1, SPACA1 and Dpy19L2 during acrosome biogenesis in testis.
- Fluoride alters the ultrastructure of the nuclear lamina, and reduces LMNB2 expression in testis.
The exposure and health effects of fluoride are an ongoing topic that has attracted worldwide attention. Fluoride exposure disturbs the testicular development, sexual hormone levels and spermatogenesis. However, as to whether fluoride interferes with acrosome formation which is essential for production of capable spermatozoa during spermatogenesis still remains unclear. The objective was to determine the effects of fluoride on the acrosome formation and to further elucidate the potential mechanism of impaired reproductive function. For this, forty adult rats were assigned into four groups. The control group received distilled water, while the other three groups were treated with 25, 50 and 100 mg NaF/L via drinking water for 56 d, respectively. Testes were processed for total RNA extraction and western blot analysis. Three samples of each group were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde solution for transmission electron microscopy analysis. From the results, we first found that fluoride decreased the expression of mRNA and protein levels of Zpbp1, Spaca1 and Dpy19l2 of seven markers during acrosome biogenesis in testes. Furthermore, fluoride damaged not only the acrosome structure, but also the structure of the nuclear lamina which was observed to be discontinuous and partially missing by transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the results indicated that the altered structure in nuclear lamina maybe due to reduced LMNB2 expression in testis induced by fluoride. In a nutshell, fluoride exposure could restrain acrosome biogenesis during spermatogenesis and contribute to the elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of fluoride-induced male reproductive toxicity.