The aim was to measure and compare fluoride concentrations in oral mucosa and saliva following a single brushing with either 1,450 or 5,000 ppm fluoride toothpaste. Fourteen healthy participants provided saliva and oral mucosa samples in the morning before tooth brushing. Then participants brushed their teeth with 1,450 ppm fluoride toothpaste, and saliva and mucosa samples were collected after 1, 2, 4, and 6 h. The experiment was repeated 3-7 days later with 5,000 ppm fluoride toothpaste. All samples were analyzed for fluoride using an ion-selective electrode adapted for microanalysis. Pre-brushing fluoride concentrations were higher in mucosa (mean1,450 0.26 ppm and mean5,000 0.20 ppm) than in saliva (mean1,450 0.08 ppm and mean5,000 0.07 ppm). The mean fluoride concentrations increased in both mucosa and saliva following a single brushing with both 1,450 ppm (meanmuc1,450 (1 h) 1.15 ppm, meansal1,450 (1 h) 0.33 ppm) and 5,000 ppm fluoride toothpaste (meanmuc5,000 (1 h) 3.21 ppm and meansal5,000 (1 h) 0.90 ppm). At 6 h, the fluoride concentrations had returned to pre-brushing levels. Across the 6-h sampling period the fluoride concentration in saliva was statistically significantly 1.4 times higher following brushing with 5,000 ppm compared with 1,450 ppm fluoride toothpaste. For mucosa, this ratio was only 1.1 and not statistically significant. In conclusion, the fluoride level in oral buccal mucosa is higher than in saliva and follows the same fluoride clearance pattern as in saliva. Over the initial 6-h period following a single tooth brushing, the ratio of the fluoride concentration in mucosa to that in saliva is independent of the fluoride concentrations in the toothpastes used.