Fluoride Action Network



  • The exposure of the population is important in relation to the routes of exposure levels of pollutants.
  • Cd, Pb and F in human blood are high in subjects living in and around the phosphate processing plant.
  • The variation of the biochemical indicators indicating the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
  • The variation of bio-indicators of oxidative stress shows the subjects in the sites close to the plant are more stressed.
  • The fluoride content is very high in the most exposed subjects and highly correlated with the biochemical indicators.

In Togo, the phosphate ore mill discharges waste containing xenobiotics like cadmium, lead and fluoride. If the role of heavy metals in the appearance of pathologies is known, the role of fluoride remains to be studied alongside xenobiotics. This study tested the hypothesis that the toxicity of fluoride contributes, along with heavy metals, to physiological dysfunction. In this process, we have studied the variation in the parameters of cardiovascular functioning, depending on the level of human contamination by fluoride and xenobiotics. The concentration of Cd and Pb in blood samples were determined by AAS and fluoride by titanium-chloride method. Lipid peroxidation, the total antioxidant potential of collected blood samples and the parameters of cardiovascular dysfunction were also measured. Cd, Pb and F contents and lipid peroxidation were found to be significantly elevated in polluted areas than control zone as well as total cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride. HDL and antioxidant potential of blood decreased in the polluted areas. Correlation tests showed that fluoride levels are related to variations in the bio-indicators of high blood pressure and oxidative stress (R varied from 0.354 to 0.907). Togo phosphate treatment leads to human contamination with fluoride, along with Cd and Pb, increasing the risk of cardiovascular dysfunction and oxidative stress.