- A large-scale study on school-age children’s health in a Chinese fluorosis area.
- Low-to-moderate fluoride and children’s anthropometric measurements were assessed.
- Fluoride exposure is related to increased BMI z-score and prevalence of overweight.
- The significant associations were differed by gender and mainly observed in girls.
- Associations were stronger among children of fathers with lower educational status.
High fluoride exposure has been related to harmful health effects, but the impacts of low-to-moderate fluoride on child growth and obesity-related outcomes remain unclear. We performed a large-scale cross-sectional study to examine the association between low-to-moderate fluoride in drinking water and anthropometric measures among Chinese school-age children. We recruited 2430 resident children 7–13 years of age, randomly from low-to-moderate fluorosis areas of Baodi District in Tianjin, China. We analyzed the fluoride contents in drinking water and urine samples using the national standardized ion selective electrode method. Multivariable linear and logistic analyses were used to assess the relationships between fluoride exposure and age- and sex-standardized height, weight and body mass index (BMI) z-scores, and childhood overweight/obesity (BMI z-score>1). In adjusted models, each log unit (roughly 10-fold) increase in urinary fluoride concentration was associated with a 0.136 unit increase in weight z-score (95% CI: 0.039, 0.233), a 0.186 unit increase in BMI z-score (95% CI: 0.058, 0.314), and a 1.304-fold increased odds of overweight/obesity (95% CI: 1.062, 1.602). These associations were stronger in girls than in boys (Pinteraction=0.016), and children of fathers with lower education levels were more vulnerable to fluoride (Pinteraction=0.056). Each log unit (roughly 10-fold) increase in water fluoride concentration was associated with a 0.129 unit increase in height z-score (95% CI: 0.005, 0.254), but not with other anthropometric measures. Our results suggest low-to-moderate fluoride exposure is associated with overweight and obesity in children. Gender and paternal education level may modify the relationship.
Association of Dietary Calcium Intake with Dental, Skeletal and Non-Skeletal Fluorosis among Women in the Ethiopian Rift Valley.
Fluorosis is a major public health problem in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Low calcium (Ca) intake may worsen fluorosis symptoms. We assessed the occurrence of fluorosis symptoms among women living in high-fluoride (F) communities in South Ethiopia and their associations with dietary Ca intake. Women (n = 270) from
Fluoride exposure from groundwater as reflected by urinary fluoride and children's dental fluorosis in the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley.
This cross-sectional study explores the relationships between children's F(-) exposure from drinking groundwater and urinary F(-) concentrations, combined with dental fluorosis (DF) in the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) Valley. We examined the DF prevalence and severity among 491 children (10 to 15 years old) who are life-long residents of 33
Evaluation of a fluorosis prevention educational program: A randomized field trial.
Background: A 2-group randomized field trial was conducted to evaluate the impact of a fluorosis educational preventive program in mother´s knowledge and practices, and on the urine fluoride concentration of their preschool children. Material and Methods: A group of 139 mother-child pairs participated in the study. Randomly, children were assigned to an intervention
Fractional urinary fluoride excretion and nail fluoride concentrations in normal, wasted and stunted 4-5 year-old children in Nepal.
Highlights It is suggested that undernourished children may be more likely develop dental fluorosis. Fluoride intake and excretion were measured in normal, wasted and stunted children. Proportion of ingested fluoride excreted via urine was not related to nutritional status. Nutritional status affected fingernail- but not toenail- fluoride concentration. Abstract Introduction It has
Dental fluorosis and a polymorphism in the COL1A2 gene in Mexican children.
Highlights Dental fluorosis is a public health problem in the communities evaluated. The rs 412777 polymorphism in the COL1A2 gene was found in Mexican children. An association between the COL1A2 gene polymorphism and dental fluorosis was found. The genetic variant evaluated represents a risk factor to develop dental fluorosis. OBJECTIVE:
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Mechanisms by Which Fluoride Causes Dental Fluorosis Remain Unknown
When it comes to how fluoride impacts human health, no tissue in the body has been studied more than the teeth. Yet, despite over 50 years of research, the mechanism by which fluoride causes dental fluorosis (a hypo-mineralization of the enamel that results in significant staining of the teeth) is not
"Mild" Dental Fluorosis: Perceptions & Psychological Impact
The vast majority of research has found that patients, parents, and the general public alike view mild fluorosis (TF score 3) as a significant blemish of the teeth, one that is likely to embarrass the affected child to a degree that cosmetic treatment would be warranted.
Dental Fluorosis & Enamel Hypoplasia in Children with Kidney Disease
Children with kidney disease are known to have high levels of fluoride in their blood and to be at risk for disfiguring tooth defects. Research suggests that high levels of fluoride in blood, which can cause the tooth defect known as dental fluorosis, can contribute to the defects that occur
Mayo Clinic: Fluoridation & Bone Disease in Renal Patients
The available evidence suggests that some patients wtih long-term renal failure are being affected by drinking water with as little as 2 ppm fluoride. The finding of adverse effects in patients drinking water with 2 ppm of fluoride suggests that a few similar cases may be found in patients imbibing 1 ppm, especially if large volumes are consumed, or in heavy tea drinkers. The finding of adverse effects in patients drinking water with 2 ppm of fluoride suggests that a few similar cases may be found in patients imbibing 1 ppm, especially if large volumes are consumed, or in heavy tea drinkers and if fluoride is indeed the cause. It would seem prudent, therefore, to monitor the fluoride intake of patients with renal failure living in high fluoride areas.
Severe Dental Fluorosis: Perception and Psychological Impact
[caption id="attachment_8879" align="aligncenter" width="550"] Severe fluorosis - Photograph by David Kennedy, DDS[/caption] In its severe forms, dental fluorosis causes highly disfiguring brown and black staining of the teeth, which can cause chronic embarrassment and social anxiety for the impacted child. In 1984, a panel from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) warned
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