- A large-scale study on school-age children’s health in a Chinese fluorosis area.
- Low-to-moderate fluoride and children’s anthropometric measurements were assessed.
- Fluoride exposure is related to increased BMI z-score and prevalence of overweight.
- The significant associations were differed by gender and mainly observed in girls.
- Associations were stronger among children of fathers with lower educational status.
High fluoride exposure has been related to harmful health effects, but the impacts of low-to-moderate fluoride on child growth and obesity-related outcomes remain unclear. We performed a large-scale cross-sectional study to examine the association between low-to-moderate fluoride in drinking water and anthropometric measures among Chinese school-age children. We recruited 2430 resident children 7–13 years of age, randomly from low-to-moderate fluorosis areas of Baodi District in Tianjin, China. We analyzed the fluoride contents in drinking water and urine samples using the national standardized ion selective electrode method. Multivariable linear and logistic analyses were used to assess the relationships between fluoride exposure and age- and sex-standardized height, weight and body mass index (BMI) z-scores, and childhood overweight/obesity (BMI z-score>1). In adjusted models, each log unit (roughly 10-fold) increase in urinary fluoride concentration was associated with a 0.136 unit increase in weight z-score (95% CI: 0.039, 0.233), a 0.186 unit increase in BMI z-score (95% CI: 0.058, 0.314), and a 1.304-fold increased odds of overweight/obesity (95% CI: 1.062, 1.602). These associations were stronger in girls than in boys (Pinteraction=0.016), and children of fathers with lower education levels were more vulnerable to fluoride (Pinteraction=0.056). Each log unit (roughly 10-fold) increase in water fluoride concentration was associated with a 0.129 unit increase in height z-score (95% CI: 0.005, 0.254), but not with other anthropometric measures. Our results suggest low-to-moderate fluoride exposure is associated with overweight and obesity in children. Gender and paternal education level may modify the relationship.
Dental fluorosis and a polymorphism in the COL1A2 gene in Mexican children.
Highlights Dental fluorosis is a public health problem in the communities evaluated. The rs 412777 polymorphism in the COL1A2 gene was found in Mexican children. An association between the COL1A2 gene polymorphism and dental fluorosis was found. The genetic variant evaluated represents a risk factor to develop dental fluorosis. OBJECTIVE:
Evaluation of a fluorosis prevention educational program: A randomized field trial.
Background: A 2-group randomized field trial was conducted to evaluate the impact of a fluorosis educational preventive program in mother´s knowledge and practices, and on the urine fluoride concentration of their preschool children. Material and Methods: A group of 139 mother-child pairs participated in the study. Randomly, children were assigned to an intervention
Evaluation of vascular and kidney injury biomarkers in Mexican children exposed to inorganic fluoride.
Highlights The relationship of child F exposure with vascular and kidney injury was assessed. The F exposure in children was partially explained by water F levels. Overall, the results were unable to elucidate kidney damage by F exposure. Childhood F exposure was associated with atherosclerotic biomarkers. Decreased serum and urine
WITHDRAWN: Co-exposure effects of arsenic and fluoride on intelligence and oxidative stress in school-aged children: a cohort study.
This article has been withdrawn at the request of the editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. as of November 6, 2020 Highlights Pioneer biomonitoring study on rural children to address As and F- co-exposure. High dental Fluorosis found in relation to urinary As and F- levels in
Fluoride exposure from groundwater as reflected by urinary fluoride and children's dental fluorosis in the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley.
This cross-sectional study explores the relationships between children's F(-) exposure from drinking groundwater and urinary F(-) concentrations, combined with dental fluorosis (DF) in the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) Valley. We examined the DF prevalence and severity among 491 children (10 to 15 years old) who are life-long residents of 33
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Diagnostic Criteria for Dental Fluorosis: The Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) Index
The traditional criteria (the "Dean Index") for diagnosing dental fluorosis was developed in the first half of the 20th century by H. Trendley Dean. While the Dean Index is still widely used in surveys of fluorosis -- including the CDC's national surveys of fluorosis in the United States -- dental
Moderate/Severe Dental Fluorosis
In its "moderate" and severe forms, fluoride causes a marked increase in the porosity of the enamel. After eruption into mouth, the porous enamel of moderate to severe fluorosis readily takes up stain, creating permanent brown and black discolorations of the teeth. In addition to extensive staining, teeth with moderate to severe fluorosis are more prone to attrition and wear - leading to pitting, chipping, and decay.
Racial Disparities in Dental Fluorosis
In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control published the results of a national survey of dental fluorosis conducted between 1999 and 2002. According to the CDC, black children in the United States have significantly higher rates of dental fluorosis than either white or Hispanic children. This was not the first time that black children were found to suffer higher rates of dental fluorosis. At least five other studies -- dating as far back as the 1960s -- have found black children in the United States are disproportionately impacted by dental fluorosis.
Nutrient Deficiencies Enhance Fluoride Toxicity
It has been known since the 1930s that poor nutrition enhances the toxicity of fluoride. As discussed below, nutrient deficiencies have been specifically linked to increased susceptibility to fluoride-induced tooth damage (dental fluorosis), bone damage (osteomalacia), neurotoxicity (reduced intelligence), and mutagenicity. The nutrients of primary importance appear to be calcium,
Dental Fluorosis & Enamel Hypoplasia in Children with Kidney Disease
Children with kidney disease are known to have high levels of fluoride in their blood and to be at risk for disfiguring tooth defects. Research suggests that high levels of fluoride in blood, which can cause the tooth defect known as dental fluorosis, can contribute to the defects that occur
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