- Fluoride-induced unrestored arrest during haploid period of spermatogenesis.
- Fluoride down-regulated of DDX25 and associated regulatory protein CRM1, HMG2, H4, TP2, and PGK2 in testes.
- Fluoride exposure altered the structure of chromatoid bodys and reduced its molecular components in the testes.
- The reversibility of fluoride toxicity is dose-dependent on male reproductive system.
The effect of fluoride as an ongoing topic has attracted much attentions due to the decline in overall human fertility worldwide. However, whether fluorine causes a temporary stimulus or permanent damage to the male reproductive system, as well as the mechanism of fluoride influencing spermatogenesis remained unclear. 48 adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups (twelve each). Control group received the distilled water, while the other three groups were treated with 25, 50, 100 mg/L NaF via drinking water for 8 weeks. Six rats from each group were selected randomly to detect the levels of various indices related to spermatogenesis. The remaining rats were given only distilled water and left for recovery of a period of 2 weeks. Results showed that the levels of serum CK, ALP, CHE, BUN, UA, and Cr, testis morphology and the ultrastructure of sperm acrosome and chromatoid body (CB) were significantly changed by fluoride. Interestingly, the elongated spermatid counts, spermatids elongation ratio, and mRNA expressions of Prm1/2 and MIWI, TDRD1, TDRD 6, TDRD7, PABP, and Hsp72 related to CB decreased markedly in fluoride treatment groups compared to the control. Furthermore, the expression levels of DDX25 and associated regulatory proteins like CRM1, HMG2, H4, TP2, and PGK2 were down-regulated by fluoride. After 2-weeks withdrawal period, out of the 19 altered spermatogenesis indicators, 15 indicators in 100 mg/L group and 3 indicators in 50 mg/L group still exhibited a significant change, while none showed change in 25 mg/L group. These results proved that the reversibility of fluoride toxicity is dose-dependent on the male reproductive system. Meanwhile, fluoride caused unrestored arrest during the haploid period of spermatogenesis, where reduced DDX25 and associated regulatory proteins play a crucial role in this process, which could provide the underlying insights to the toxic mechanism of fluoride induced male reproductive toxicity.