Activation of the purified guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory component (G/F) of adenylate cyclase by F- requires the presence of Mg2+ and another factor. This factor, which contaminates commercial preparations of various nucleotides and disposable glass test tubes, has been identified as Al3+. In the presence of 10 mM Mg2+ and 5 mM F-, AlCl3 causes activation of G/F with an apparent activation constant of approximately 1-5 muM. The requirement for Al3+ is highly specific; of 28 other metals tested, only Be2+ promoted activation of G/F by F-.
Chronic Fluoride Exposure and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder.
The continuous rise of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevalent in the past few decades is causing an increase in public health and socioeconomic concern. A consensus suggests the involvement of both genetic and environmental factors in the ASD etiopathogenesis. Fluoride (F) is rarely recognized among the environmental risk factors of
Paradoxes of fluoride toxicity
Numerous literature sources reveal evidence that fluoride affects the activities of numerous enzymes in vitro as well as in vivo. Millions of people live in endemic fluoride areas with a severe public health problem. A plethora of data suggest that fluoride should be recognized as a developmental neurotoxicant for humans.
Interplay of glia activation and oxidative stress formation in fluoride and aluminium exposure.
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress formation is pivotal in the action of environmental agents which trigger the activation of glial cells and neuroinflammation to stimulate compensatory mechanisms aimed at restoring homeostasis. AIM: This study sets to demonstrate the interplay of fluoride (F) and aluminium (Al) in brain metabolism. Specifically, it reveals how oxidative
Screening of Human Proteins for Fluoride and Aluminum Binding.
Previous studies showed that prolonged exposure to fluoride (F-) and aluminum (Al3+) ions is associated with numerous diseases including neurological disorders. They don't have any known biological function. But they can bind with proteins that interact with ions similar to them. Such unwanted interactions affect the normal biological function of
Genotoxicity of spent pot liner as determined with the zebrafish (Danio rerio) experimental model.
Spent pot liner (SPL) is a solid waste generated during the primary smelting of aluminum, and its toxicity is attributed to the presence of fluoride, cyanide, and aluminum salts, which can be leached into aquatic ecosystems. Since the effects of this waste on aquatic life forms have not yet been
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