- Fluoride concentrations were 0.55 mg L-1 in 3427 water consumption points in Shanxi Province.
- Health risks were assessed for children consumers regarding fluoride exposure.
- Approximately 10%, 1.3% and 0.06% children are at risk for dental decay, dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively.
- The fluoride concentrations were being decreased significantly from 2008 to 2017.
- The fluoride endemic areas were marked by GIS mapping system.
Excessive and inadequate intake of fluoride may cause adverse effects in children, such as dental caries and dental fluorosis. This study reports the results of monitoring fluoride concentrations in drinking water from an endemic fluorosis region during the ten-year period (2008 through 2017). The fluoride concentration had a range of 0.03–9.42 mg L-1 (mean = 0.55 ± 0.01 mg L-1). Approximately 10%, 1.3% and 0.06% children are at risk for dental decay, dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Probabilistic risks for children were assessed and the fluoride endemic areas were marked by GIS mapping system. On several water consumption points, the hazard quotient (HQ) values for children were higher than 1, indicating potential non-cancer health risks due to fluoride exposure. The results of this study will help governmental agencies to develop better policies for protecting children from exposure to fluoride.
Equine dental and skeletal fluorosis induced by well water consumption.
Two horses that consumed well water with high fluoride content exhibited clinical signs of chronic dental and skeletal fluoride toxicosis and were later euthanized and autopsied. Both horses had degenerative disease of multiple joints and multiple dental defects. Elevated fluoride concentrations were found in bone and tooth samples of both
Impact of Community Defluoridation on a Village Endemic for Hydric Fluorosis in Rural Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Excessive intake of fluorides can lead to the development of fluorosis, a serious public health issue in India. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of community defluoridation in preventing fluorosis in Kaiwara village. Methodology: This community interventional trial was conducted in Kaiwara
Clinical symptoms of dental and skeletal fluorosis in Gadag and Bagalkot Districts of Karnataka.
An investigation was undertaken in six endemic villages of Mundargi taluk of Gadag district and two of Hungund taluk of Bagalkot district to assess the clinical symptoms of both dental and skeletal fluorosis and in turn to find out the severity of the disease. A check list developed with the help of
Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards.
Excerpts: Summary Under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to establish exposure standards for contaminants in public drinking-water systems that might cause any adverse effects on human health. These standards include the maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG), the maximum contaminant level (MCL), and the secondary
The impact of the hyperacid Ijen Crater Lake: risks of excess fluoride to human health.
The Asembagus irrigation area (East Java, Indonesia) receives a high input of fluoride (F) via surface water that partially originates from the hyperacid crater lake of the Ijen volcano. Endemic dental fluorosis among local residents has been ascribed to F in water wells. In this study, the total F intake
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As demonstrated by the studies below, skeletal fluorosis may produce adverse symptoms, including arthritic pains, clinical osteoarthritis, gastrointestinal disturbances, and bone fragility, before the classic bone change of fluorosis (i.e., osteosclerosis in the spine and pelvis) is detectable by x-ray. Relying on x-rays, therefore, to diagnosis skeletal fluorosis will invariably fail to protect those individuals who are suffering from the pre-skeletal phase of the disease. Moreover, some individuals with clinical skeletal fluorosis will not develop an increase in bone density, let alone osteosclerosis, of the spine. Thus, relying on unusual increases in spinal bone density will under-detect the rate of skeletal fluoride poisoning in a population.
Fluoride & Osteoarthritis
While the osteoarthritic effects that occurred from fluoride exposure were once considered to be limited to those with skeletal fluorosis, recent research shows that fluoride can cause osteoarthritis in the absence of traditionally defined fluorosis. Conventional methods used for detecting skeletal fluorosis, therefore, will fail to detect the full range of people suffering from fluoride-induced osteoarthritis.
Community Fluorosis Index (CFI)
The current Community Fluorosis Index for U.S. adolescents as a whole (from both fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas) is roughly 5 times higher than the CFI health authorities predicted for fluoridated areas when fluoridation first began. It is also higher than the CFI that the NIDR found in fluoridated areas back in the 1980s. It is readily apparent, therefore, that children are ingesting far more fluoride than was the case in the 1950s, and even as recently as the 1980s.
Moderate/Severe Dental Fluorosis
In its "moderate" and severe forms, fluoride causes a marked increase in the porosity of the enamel. After eruption into mouth, the porous enamel of moderate to severe fluorosis readily takes up stain, creating permanent brown and black discolorations of the teeth. In addition to extensive staining, teeth with moderate to severe fluorosis are more prone to attrition and wear - leading to pitting, chipping, and decay.
Dental Fluorosis in the U.S. 1950-2004
Before the widespread use of fluoride in dentistry, dental fluorosis was rarely found in western countries. Today, with virtually every toothpaste now containing fluoride, and most U.S. water supplies containing fluoride chemicals, dental fluorosis rates have reached unprecedented levels. In the 1950s, it was estimated that only 10% of children in
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