- Fluoride concentrations were 0.55 mg L-1 in 3427 water consumption points in Shanxi Province.
- Health risks were assessed for children consumers regarding fluoride exposure.
- Approximately 10%, 1.3% and 0.06% children are at risk for dental decay, dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively.
- The fluoride concentrations were being decreased significantly from 2008 to 2017.
- The fluoride endemic areas were marked by GIS mapping system.
Excessive and inadequate intake of fluoride may cause adverse effects in children, such as dental caries and dental fluorosis. This study reports the results of monitoring fluoride concentrations in drinking water from an endemic fluorosis region during the ten-year period (2008 through 2017). The fluoride concentration had a range of 0.03–9.42 mg L-1 (mean = 0.55 ± 0.01 mg L-1). Approximately 10%, 1.3% and 0.06% children are at risk for dental decay, dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Probabilistic risks for children were assessed and the fluoride endemic areas were marked by GIS mapping system. On several water consumption points, the hazard quotient (HQ) values for children were higher than 1, indicating potential non-cancer health risks due to fluoride exposure. The results of this study will help governmental agencies to develop better policies for protecting children from exposure to fluoride.
Clinical aspects of fluorosis in horses
Horses grazing in areas where cattle and sheep had developed severe fluorosis were examined clinically. Of those examined, 12 horses of different ages and with various degrees of fluorosis were selected for necropsy. Selected tissues were examined grossly, histologically, and radiographically. Major fluorotic lesions occurred only when the horses ingested
The pathogenesis of endemic fluorosis: Research progress in the last 5 years.
Fluorine is one of the trace elements necessary for health. It has many physiological functions, and participates in normal metabolism. However, fluorine has paradoxical effects on the body. Many studies have shown that tissues and organs of humans and animals appear to suffer different degrees of damage after long-term direct
Fluorosis in horses drinking artifically fluoridated water
Quarter Horses drinking water artificially fluoridated at 0.9 to 1.1 ppm over long periods of time developed dental fluorosis. Even when the horses had not been exposed to artificially fluoridated water (AFW) during formation of enamel, brown discoloration occurred and progressed. Pronounced loss of tooth-supporting alveolar bone with recession of
Osteo-dental fluorosis in domestic horses and donkeys in Rajasthan, India.
Chronic fluoride (F) intoxication in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis was observed in 23 domestic equus animals, 9 to 23 years old, including 14 horses (Equus caballus), and 9 donkeys (E. asinus) living in F endemic areas of Dungarpur district, Rajasthan, India. The mean F concentration in the drinking water
Dental and early-stage skeletal fluorosis in children induced by fluoride in brick-tea
Fluorosis from brick-tea was discovered during the last decade in western and northern parts of China. Dental fluorosis has a high prevalence among children in these brick-tea endemic areas, but skeletal fluorosis does not normally become apparent until adulthood. In July 2002 we examined 132 primary school children, age 8
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Fluoride & Osteoarthritis
While the osteoarthritic effects that occurred from fluoride exposure were once considered to be limited to those with skeletal fluorosis, recent research shows that fluoride can cause osteoarthritis in the absence of traditionally defined fluorosis. Conventional methods used for detecting skeletal fluorosis, therefore, will fail to detect the full range of people suffering from fluoride-induced osteoarthritis.
Dental Fluorosis in the U.S. 1950-2004
Before the widespread use of fluoride in dentistry, dental fluorosis was rarely found in western countries. Today, with virtually every toothpaste now containing fluoride, and most U.S. water supplies containing fluoride chemicals, dental fluorosis rates have reached unprecedented levels. In the 1950s, it was estimated that only 10% of children in
As demonstrated by the studies below, skeletal fluorosis may produce adverse symptoms, including arthritic pains, clinical osteoarthritis, gastrointestinal disturbances, and bone fragility, before the classic bone change of fluorosis (i.e., osteosclerosis in the spine and pelvis) is detectable by x-ray. Relying on x-rays, therefore, to diagnosis skeletal fluorosis will invariably fail to protect those individuals who are suffering from the pre-skeletal phase of the disease. Moreover, some individuals with clinical skeletal fluorosis will not develop an increase in bone density, let alone osteosclerosis, of the spine. Thus, relying on unusual increases in spinal bone density will under-detect the rate of skeletal fluoride poisoning in a population.
Skeletal Fluorosis: The Misdiagnosis Problem
It is a virtual certainty that there are individuals in the general population unknowingly suffering from some form of skeletal fluorosis as a result of a doctor's failure to consider fluoride as a cause of their symptoms. Proof that this is the case can be found in the following case reports of skeletal fluorosis written by doctors in the U.S. and other western countries. As can be seen, a consistent feature of these reports is that fluorosis patients--even those with crippling skeletal fluorosis--are misdiagnosed for years by multiple teams of doctors who routinely fail to consider fluoride as a possible cause of their disease.
Moderate/Severe Dental Fluorosis
In its "moderate" and severe forms, fluoride causes a marked increase in the porosity of the enamel. After eruption into mouth, the porous enamel of moderate to severe fluorosis readily takes up stain, creating permanent brown and black discolorations of the teeth. In addition to extensive staining, teeth with moderate to severe fluorosis are more prone to attrition and wear - leading to pitting, chipping, and decay.
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