- Fluoride concentrations were 0.55 mg L-1 in 3427 water consumption points in Shanxi Province.
- Health risks were assessed for children consumers regarding fluoride exposure.
- Approximately 10%, 1.3% and 0.06% children are at risk for dental decay, dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively.
- The fluoride concentrations were being decreased significantly from 2008 to 2017.
- The fluoride endemic areas were marked by GIS mapping system.
Excessive and inadequate intake of fluoride may cause adverse effects in children, such as dental caries and dental fluorosis. This study reports the results of monitoring fluoride concentrations in drinking water from an endemic fluorosis region during the ten-year period (2008 through 2017). The fluoride concentration had a range of 0.03–9.42 mg L-1 (mean = 0.55 ± 0.01 mg L-1). Approximately 10%, 1.3% and 0.06% children are at risk for dental decay, dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Probabilistic risks for children were assessed and the fluoride endemic areas were marked by GIS mapping system. On several water consumption points, the hazard quotient (HQ) values for children were higher than 1, indicating potential non-cancer health risks due to fluoride exposure. The results of this study will help governmental agencies to develop better policies for protecting children from exposure to fluoride.
A national cross-sectional study on effects of fluoride-safe water supply on the prevalence of fluorosis in China
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of provided fluoride-safe drinking-water for the prevention and control of endemic fluorosis in China. DESIGN: A national cross-sectional study in China. SETTING: In 1985, randomly selected villages in 27 provinces (or cities and municipalities) in 5 geographic areas all over China. PARTICIPANTS: Involved 81 786 children aged from
Unsuitability of World Health Organisation guidelines for fluoride concentrations in drinking water in Senega
A survey was done of the prevalence of dental fluorosis among children aged 7-16 years and the occurrence of skeletal fluorosis among adults aged 40-60 years living in regions in Senegal where fluoride concentrations in the drinking water ranged from less than 0.1 to 7.4 mg/l. In the area where the fluoride concentration
Fluorosis in horses drinking artifically fluoridated water
Quarter Horses drinking water artificially fluoridated at 0.9 to 1.1 ppm over long periods of time developed dental fluorosis. Even when the horses had not been exposed to artificially fluoridated water (AFW) during formation of enamel, brown discoloration occurred and progressed. Pronounced loss of tooth-supporting alveolar bone with recession of
Distribution of fluoride contamination in drinking water resources and health risk assessment using geographic information system, northwest Iran.
Highlights Fluorosis is a considerable health problem worldwide. High concentrations fluoride above 3 mg l?1 may cause dental and skeletal fluorosis. HQ indicated health risk assessment in relation to F- concentration for children and adults were significant. The fluoride contamination must be reduced in this study area to decrease endemic
The pathogenesis of endemic fluorosis: Research progress in the last 5 years.
Fluorine is one of the trace elements necessary for health. It has many physiological functions, and participates in normal metabolism. However, fluorine has paradoxical effects on the body. Many studies have shown that tissues and organs of humans and animals appear to suffer different degrees of damage after long-term direct
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As demonstrated by the studies below, skeletal fluorosis may produce adverse symptoms, including arthritic pains, clinical osteoarthritis, gastrointestinal disturbances, and bone fragility, before the classic bone change of fluorosis (i.e., osteosclerosis in the spine and pelvis) is detectable by x-ray. Relying on x-rays, therefore, to diagnosis skeletal fluorosis will invariably fail to protect those individuals who are suffering from the pre-skeletal phase of the disease. Moreover, some individuals with clinical skeletal fluorosis will not develop an increase in bone density, let alone osteosclerosis, of the spine. Thus, relying on unusual increases in spinal bone density will under-detect the rate of skeletal fluoride poisoning in a population.
Community Fluorosis Index (CFI)
The current Community Fluorosis Index for U.S. adolescents as a whole (from both fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas) is roughly 5 times higher than the CFI health authorities predicted for fluoridated areas when fluoridation first began. It is also higher than the CFI that the NIDR found in fluoridated areas back in the 1980s. It is readily apparent, therefore, that children are ingesting far more fluoride than was the case in the 1950s, and even as recently as the 1980s.
Skeletal Fluorosis: The Misdiagnosis Problem
It is a virtual certainty that there are individuals in the general population unknowingly suffering from some form of skeletal fluorosis as a result of a doctor's failure to consider fluoride as a cause of their symptoms. Proof that this is the case can be found in the following case reports of skeletal fluorosis written by doctors in the U.S. and other western countries. As can be seen, a consistent feature of these reports is that fluorosis patients--even those with crippling skeletal fluorosis--are misdiagnosed for years by multiple teams of doctors who routinely fail to consider fluoride as a possible cause of their disease.
Dental Fluorosis in the U.S. 1950-2004
Before the widespread use of fluoride in dentistry, dental fluorosis was rarely found in western countries. Today, with virtually every toothpaste now containing fluoride, and most U.S. water supplies containing fluoride chemicals, dental fluorosis rates have reached unprecedented levels. In the 1950s, it was estimated that only 10% of children in
Moderate/Severe Dental Fluorosis
In its "moderate" and severe forms, fluoride causes a marked increase in the porosity of the enamel. After eruption into mouth, the porous enamel of moderate to severe fluorosis readily takes up stain, creating permanent brown and black discolorations of the teeth. In addition to extensive staining, teeth with moderate to severe fluorosis are more prone to attrition and wear - leading to pitting, chipping, and decay.
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