- NaF induced NETs formation.
- NaF caused imbalance between ROS and antioxidant system.
- NaF induced NETs formation via ROS, ERK, and p38 signaling pathways.
In recent years, numerous studies paid more attention to the molecular mechanisms associated with fluoride toxicity. However, the detailed mechanisms of fluoride immunotoxicity in bovine neutrophils remain unclear. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a novel immune mechanism of neutrophils. We hypothesized that sodium fluoride (NaF) can trigger NETs activation and release, and investigate the related molecular mechanisms during the process. We exposed peripheral blood neutrophils to 1 mM NaF for 120 min in bovine neutrophils. The results showed that NaF exposure triggered NET-like structures decorated with histones and granule proteins. Quantitative measurement of NETs content correlated positively with the concentration of NaF. Mechanistically, NaF exposure increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and phosphorylation levels of ERK, p38, whereas inhibiting the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) compared with control neutrophils. NETs formation is induced by NaF and this effect was inhibited by the inhibitors diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), U0126 and SB202190. Our findings described the potential importance of NaF-triggered NETs related molecules, which might help to extend the current understanding of NaF immunotoxicity.
Bone quality in fluoride-exposed populations: A novel application of the ultrasonic method.
Highlights A novel ultrasonic bone quality biomarker was tested in a population with low to high exposure to F.- Negative associations were found between F- exposure and bone quality Decreased bone quality reflects net bone loss, abnormal mineralization and altered collagen. The finding highlights that F- exposure has complex
Quantification of rib COL1A2 gene expression in healthy and fluorosed Inner Mongolia cashmere goats.
Damage to collagen protein and its gene expression caused by excessive fluoride (F) ingestion plays an important role in the etiology of skeletal fluorosis. Recently we found that industrial F pollution significantly increased the expression level of type II collagen gene (COL2A1) in rib cartilage of Inner Mongolia cashmere goats. With the same goats and
[Osteofluorosis caused by excess use of toothpaste].
BACKGROUND: Osteofluorosis is caused by chronic fluoride intoxication. Fluoride is used in toothpaste for the prevention of dental caries, and dental fluorosis has often been reported among children and attributed to ingestion of fluoride toothpaste. We report a case of chronic fluoride intoxication caused by excess use of toothpaste in
Is the severity of osteosclerosis of fluorosis proportional to the dose of fluoride intake?
Histomorphometric study was made on a series of sections of undecalcified epiphyseal femoral specimens from rats with experimental fluorosis. The results revealed osteosclerosis in Group A (5 ppm) being more severe than that in Group B (25 ppm). With the increase of fluoride dose, the parameters fell down instead of
Anabolic effects of fluoride on bone
Fluoride exerts a biphasic action at the level of osteoblasts, on bone mineral, on bone structure and function, and in the treatment of osteoporosis. At low circulating concentrations, skeletal uptake of fluoride is limited and the effects are beneficial. At higher concentrations and greater skeletal uptake, fluoride may cause the
Related Studies :
As demonstrated by the studies below, skeletal fluorosis may produce adverse symptoms, including arthritic pains, clinical osteoarthritis, gastrointestinal disturbances, and bone fragility, before the classic bone change of fluorosis (i.e., osteosclerosis in the spine and pelvis) is detectable by x-ray. Relying on x-rays, therefore, to diagnosis skeletal fluorosis will invariably fail to protect those individuals who are suffering from the pre-skeletal phase of the disease. Moreover, some individuals with clinical skeletal fluorosis will not develop an increase in bone density, let alone osteosclerosis, of the spine. Thus, relying on unusual increases in spinal bone density will under-detect the rate of skeletal fluoride poisoning in a population.
Fluoride & Osteoarthritis
While the osteoarthritic effects that occurred from fluoride exposure were once considered to be limited to those with skeletal fluorosis, recent research shows that fluoride can cause osteoarthritis in the absence of traditionally defined fluorosis. Conventional methods used for detecting skeletal fluorosis, therefore, will fail to detect the full range of people suffering from fluoride-induced osteoarthritis.
Skeletal Fluorosis: The Misdiagnosis Problem
It is a virtual certainty that there are individuals in the general population unknowingly suffering from some form of skeletal fluorosis as a result of a doctor's failure to consider fluoride as a cause of their symptoms. Proof that this is the case can be found in the following case reports of skeletal fluorosis written by doctors in the U.S. and other western countries. As can be seen, a consistent feature of these reports is that fluorosis patients--even those with crippling skeletal fluorosis--are misdiagnosed for years by multiple teams of doctors who routinely fail to consider fluoride as a possible cause of their disease.
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