- NaF induced NETs formation.
- NaF caused imbalance between ROS and antioxidant system.
- NaF induced NETs formation via ROS, ERK, and p38 signaling pathways.
In recent years, numerous studies paid more attention to the molecular mechanisms associated with fluoride toxicity. However, the detailed mechanisms of fluoride immunotoxicity in bovine neutrophils remain unclear. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a novel immune mechanism of neutrophils. We hypothesized that sodium fluoride (NaF) can trigger NETs activation and release, and investigate the related molecular mechanisms during the process. We exposed peripheral blood neutrophils to 1 mM NaF for 120 min in bovine neutrophils. The results showed that NaF exposure triggered NET-like structures decorated with histones and granule proteins. Quantitative measurement of NETs content correlated positively with the concentration of NaF. Mechanistically, NaF exposure increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and phosphorylation levels of ERK, p38, whereas inhibiting the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) compared with control neutrophils. NETs formation is induced by NaF and this effect was inhibited by the inhibitors diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), U0126 and SB202190. Our findings described the potential importance of NaF-triggered NETs related molecules, which might help to extend the current understanding of NaF immunotoxicity.
Suppression of Sclerostin and Dickkopf-1 levels in patients with fluorine bone injury
Evidence has been accumulating for the role of Sclerostin and Dickkopf-1 as the antagonists of Wnt/B-Catenin signaling pathway, which suppresses bone formation through inhibiting osteoblastic function. To get deep-inside information about the expression of the antagonists in patients with fluorine bone injury, a case-control study was conducted in two counties
Fluoride promotes osteoblastic differentiation through canonical Wnt/B-catenin signaling pathway
Although fluoride is known to stimulate bone formation, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent studies have implicated the Wnt/B-catenin pathway as a major signaling cascade in bone biology. Our earlier studies highlighted a probable role of canonical Wnt pathway in bone formation of chronic fluoride-exposed rats, but the
Transcriptomics provides mechanistic indicators of fluoride toxicology on endochondral ossification in the hind limb of Bufo gargarizans.
Highlights Excessive fluoride could inhibit endochondral ossification. Fluoride down-regulated most endochondral ossification related genes expression. Ihh was expressed in prehypertrophic chondrocytes. Sox9 was expressed in proliferous, prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes. Fluoride did not cause any affect in the location of the Ihh and Sox9 mRNA. Endochondral ossification, the process by which
Fluorosilicic acid induces DNA damage and oxidative stress in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.
Highlights Fluorosilicic acid is the most used additive for water fluoridation. Dental fluorosis can be caused by fluorosilicic acid present in drinking water. DNA damage was caused by fluorosilicic acid in mesenchymal stem cells. Fluorosilicic acid altered bone mineralization in mesenchymal stem cells. DNA damage caused by fluorosilicic acid
miR-486-3p regulates CyclinD1 and promotes fluoride-induced osteoblast proliferation and activation.
Fluoride is a persistent environmental pollutant, and its excessive intake contributes to skeletal and dental fluorosis. The mechanisms underlying fluoride-induced abnormal osteoblast proliferation and activation, which are related to skeletal fluorosis, have not yet been fully clarified. As important epigenetic regulators, microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in bone metabolism. On the basis
Related Studies :
As demonstrated by the studies below, skeletal fluorosis may produce adverse symptoms, including arthritic pains, clinical osteoarthritis, gastrointestinal disturbances, and bone fragility, before the classic bone change of fluorosis (i.e., osteosclerosis in the spine and pelvis) is detectable by x-ray. Relying on x-rays, therefore, to diagnosis skeletal fluorosis will invariably fail to protect those individuals who are suffering from the pre-skeletal phase of the disease. Moreover, some individuals with clinical skeletal fluorosis will not develop an increase in bone density, let alone osteosclerosis, of the spine. Thus, relying on unusual increases in spinal bone density will under-detect the rate of skeletal fluoride poisoning in a population.
Fluoride & Osteoarthritis
While the osteoarthritic effects that occurred from fluoride exposure were once considered to be limited to those with skeletal fluorosis, recent research shows that fluoride can cause osteoarthritis in the absence of traditionally defined fluorosis. Conventional methods used for detecting skeletal fluorosis, therefore, will fail to detect the full range of people suffering from fluoride-induced osteoarthritis.
Skeletal Fluorosis: The Misdiagnosis Problem
It is a virtual certainty that there are individuals in the general population unknowingly suffering from some form of skeletal fluorosis as a result of a doctor's failure to consider fluoride as a cause of their symptoms. Proof that this is the case can be found in the following case reports of skeletal fluorosis written by doctors in the U.S. and other western countries. As can be seen, a consistent feature of these reports is that fluorosis patients--even those with crippling skeletal fluorosis--are misdiagnosed for years by multiple teams of doctors who routinely fail to consider fluoride as a possible cause of their disease.
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