- NaF induced NETs formation.
- NaF caused imbalance between ROS and antioxidant system.
- NaF induced NETs formation via ROS, ERK, and p38 signaling pathways.
In recent years, numerous studies paid more attention to the molecular mechanisms associated with fluoride toxicity. However, the detailed mechanisms of fluoride immunotoxicity in bovine neutrophils remain unclear. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a novel immune mechanism of neutrophils. We hypothesized that sodium fluoride (NaF) can trigger NETs activation and release, and investigate the related molecular mechanisms during the process. We exposed peripheral blood neutrophils to 1 mM NaF for 120 min in bovine neutrophils. The results showed that NaF exposure triggered NET-like structures decorated with histones and granule proteins. Quantitative measurement of NETs content correlated positively with the concentration of NaF. Mechanistically, NaF exposure increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and phosphorylation levels of ERK, p38, whereas inhibiting the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) compared with control neutrophils. NETs formation is induced by NaF and this effect was inhibited by the inhibitors diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), U0126 and SB202190. Our findings described the potential importance of NaF-triggered NETs related molecules, which might help to extend the current understanding of NaF immunotoxicity.
Quantification of rib COL1A2 gene expression in healthy and fluorosed Inner Mongolia cashmere goats.
Damage to collagen protein and its gene expression caused by excessive fluoride (F) ingestion plays an important role in the etiology of skeletal fluorosis. Recently we found that industrial F pollution significantly increased the expression level of type II collagen gene (COL2A1) in rib cartilage of Inner Mongolia cashmere goats. With the same goats and
The dose-time effects of fluoride on the expression and DNA methylation level of the promoter region of BMP-2 and BMP-7 in rats.
Highlights Fluoride has a dose-time effect on Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 expression. Fluoride increases the expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and 7. DNA methylation may be involved in fluoride regulation of target protein expression. Skeletal fluorosis is a chronic metabolic bone disease caused by excessive exposed to fluoride. Recent studies have
Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in aberrant activation of fluoride-treated osteoblasts
The aberrant activation of osteoblasts in the early stage is one of the critical steps during the pathogenesis of skeletal fluorosis. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses and unfolded protein response (UPR) are initiated to alleviate the accumulation of unfolded proteins against cell injury. The previous researches had demonstrated that fluoride
Effects of sodium fluoride treatment in vitro on cell proliferation, apoptosis and caspase-3 and caspase-9 mRNA expression by neonatal rat osteoblasts.
Long-term excessive fluoride intake is linked to skeletal disease. Skeletal health is influenced by the balance between bone formation and resorption of which osteoblast function is critical. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of fluoride treatment on osteoblast proliferation, apoptosis and caspase-3 and caspase-9 mRNA expression
Cellular and histochemical characteristics of osteoid formed in experimental fluoride poisoning
The present study on the cellular and histochemical characteristics of osteoid formed in iliac crest bone during fluoride poisoning in rabbits was carried out as there is no information available to date either on its structural or biochemical characteristics. Osteoid formation in bone is prevalent both in fluorosis and in
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Fluoride & Osteoarthritis
While the osteoarthritic effects that occurred from fluoride exposure were once considered to be limited to those with skeletal fluorosis, recent research shows that fluoride can cause osteoarthritis in the absence of traditionally defined fluorosis. Conventional methods used for detecting skeletal fluorosis, therefore, will fail to detect the full range of people suffering from fluoride-induced osteoarthritis.
Skeletal Fluorosis: The Misdiagnosis Problem
It is a virtual certainty that there are individuals in the general population unknowingly suffering from some form of skeletal fluorosis as a result of a doctor's failure to consider fluoride as a cause of their symptoms. Proof that this is the case can be found in the following case reports of skeletal fluorosis written by doctors in the U.S. and other western countries. As can be seen, a consistent feature of these reports is that fluorosis patients--even those with crippling skeletal fluorosis--are misdiagnosed for years by multiple teams of doctors who routinely fail to consider fluoride as a possible cause of their disease.
As demonstrated by the studies below, skeletal fluorosis may produce adverse symptoms, including arthritic pains, clinical osteoarthritis, gastrointestinal disturbances, and bone fragility, before the classic bone change of fluorosis (i.e., osteosclerosis in the spine and pelvis) is detectable by x-ray. Relying on x-rays, therefore, to diagnosis skeletal fluorosis will invariably fail to protect those individuals who are suffering from the pre-skeletal phase of the disease. Moreover, some individuals with clinical skeletal fluorosis will not develop an increase in bone density, let alone osteosclerosis, of the spine. Thus, relying on unusual increases in spinal bone density will under-detect the rate of skeletal fluoride poisoning in a population.
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