Fluoride Action Network


Fluoride exposure is associated with lowered cognitive function ability, intelligence quotient, and mental decline, especially in children. The brain insulin receptor (IR) signaling system is related to neuronal plasticity and consequent cognitive ability. In our previous study, NaF exposure decreased IR expressions in olfactory bulb (OB) and hippocampus after Y-maze test in male mice. In order to further explore whether the Y-maze test affected IR gene and protein expression levels in the OB and hippocampus under the NaF exposure, healthy male mice were randomly allotted into four groups and challenged with 0, 50, 100, and 150 mg/L NaF for three continuous months. The results showed that femur fluorine content of the NaF-exposed groups increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. NaF significantly decreased brain protein content and organ coefficient of the treated male mice. The protein and mRNA expression levels of the IR were significantly decreased in the OB and hippocampus of the NaF-treated mice. Interestingly, indicators (brain protein content and organ coefficient) measured in the present study were significantly lower than our previous study indicators (mice tested Y-maze test), especially the expression levels of IR protein and mRNA in the same concentration groups. Taken together, these results indicated that Y-maze test could promote the expression levels of IR protein and mRNA in the OB and hippocampus, while NaF had a stronger inhibitory effect, which resulted in adverse effects on the expression levels of IR in the OB and hippocampus of male mice.


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This research was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (31,372,497, 31,672,623), Key Research and Development Plan Project of Shanxi Province (201903D321108), Higher School Teaching Reform Innovation Project of Shanxi Province (J2018079), and Science and Technology Innovation Fund of Shanxi Agricultural University (2016ZZ09).