High water hardness associated with high water fluoride and the geographical distribution of Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka are well correlated. We undertook this study to observe the effects of high water hardness with high fluoride on kidney and liver in rats and efficacy of distilled water in reducing the effects.
Test water sample with high water hardness and high fluoride was collected from Mihinthale region and normal water samples were collected from Kandy region. Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into 8 groups and water samples were introduced as follows as daily water supply. Four groups received normal water for 60 (N1) and 90 (N2) days and test water for 60 (T1) and 90 (T2) days. Other four groups received normal (N3) and test (T3) water for 60?days and followed by distilled water for additional 60?days and normal (N4) and test (T4) water for 90?days followed by distilled water for another 90?days. The rats were sacrificed following treatment. Serum samples were subjected to biochemical tests; serum creatinine, urea, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and elemental analysis. Histopathological examinations were carried out using kidney and liver samples.
Test water treated groups were associated with acute tubular injury with loss of brush border and test water followed with distilled water treated groups maintained a better morphology with minimal loss of brush border. Serum creatinine levels in T1 and T2 groups and urea level in T2 group were significantly (p?<?0.05) increased compared to control groups. After administration of distilled water, both parameters were significantly reduced in T4 group (p <?0.05) compared to T2. Serum AST activity was increased in T4 group (p <?0.05) compared to control group with no histopathological changes in liver tissues. The serum sodium levels were found to be much higher compared to the other electrolytes in test groups.
Hard water with high fluoride content resulted in acute tubular injury with a significant increase in serum levels of creatinine, urea and AST activity. These alterations were minimized by administering distilled water.
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